International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame <div align="justify"> <p>IJAFAME is a bi-monthly (one issue every two months) peer-reviewed scientific journal (Blind peer review), dedicated to research in finance, accounting, auditing, management and economics. Its objective is to promote research in economics and management while publishing original articles or articles adapted to a given context. It also provides a space for exchange between professionals and academics in order to find new research ideas and encourages theoretical and practical reflections developed according to different paradigms (positivist, constructivist, interpretativist, etc.).</p> <p>Paper's are published in english or frensh</p> </div> IJAFAME en-US International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics 2658-8455 <p><span style="color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: 'Noto Sans', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">As far as copyright is concerned, the authors retain their copyright without restriction.</span></p> Supply chain and systemic crises: the contribution of modeling and simulation methods to improve resilience -case of the covid-19 pandemic- https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/29 <p>Systemic crises, whether natural or man-made, are starting to become recurrent, including epidemics / pandemics like the one we are currently experiencing, COVID-19. The occurrence of an epidemic, always in an unpredictable and brutal manner, poses serious challenges to decision-makers, like the managers of Supply Chain (S.C), especially, of global dimension. In normal times, the management of S.C is designed with a logic of optimization, but, in times of uncertainty, born of a turnaround, it is necessary to acquire new know-how in the management of epidemic crises. This is why, the use of modeling and simulation approaches, it is presented as decision support tools, which are able to mitigate risks and predict the future of a CS with more than lucidity and efficiency. The academic literature on the subject and the good practices identified, show that thanks to simulation methods, S.Cs impacted by systemic (pandemic) crises can quickly recover and come back in force on the market, in short, strengthen their resilience. Therefore, simulation algorithms constitute robust decision-making artefacts, both for public and private decision-makers.</p> Boubker Nejjar Copyright (c) 2020 Boubker Nejjar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 2 22 10.5281/zenodo.4016645 The determinants of the acceptance of information technologies for the financial auditor in decision-making productivity https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/30 <p>New technologies are leading current companies towards new management styles. This context causes a profound change in the audit framework in order to control the financial resources of companies. A new conception of the role of the auditor is called for.</p> <p>This article proposes a conceptual model based on a theoretical crossover in the context of financial audit in a computerized environment. This model proposes the determinants of the acceptance of information technology that promote the decision-making productivity of the financial auditor.</p> Abdelilah Berrada Ali Boutayba Copyright (c) 2020 Abdelilah Berrada, Ali Boutayba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 23 51 10.5281/zenodo.4019665 The organizational agility: exploratory study on the human resource dimension of agile firm’s https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/14 <p>Today, the main challenge for the companies is to gain in effeciency and competitivity to cope with a changing unpredictable, if not turbulent environment, where only the fittest have a say in the market place. To face this challenge, organizations have to be equiped with a staff who can constantly adapt and keep up with the pace by developing the so called « agile » or flexible skills and behavior. These later can’t be reached without the help and support of the organization whose responsability is to put into practice tools to assist employees in these continuous. The aim of this article is to analyse the contribution of the human resources in conducting and developing organizational agility.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sarra Mrani Zentar Haya Ilahyane Aziz Douari Copyright (c) 2020 sarra Mrani Zentar, Haya Ilahyane, Aziz Douari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 52 71 10.5281/zenodo.4019869 Economic Intelligence and Financial Market Efficiency: Modeling Trial https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/31 <p>The empirical study on the modeling of the MASI time series, during the period 2015-2019, reveals the rejection of any form of efficiency in the Casablanca stock market. This observation is mainly explained by the absence of an economic intelligence allowing to collect, process and integrate effectively all the information disseminated.</p> Fettouma Maa Brahim Loummou Copyright (c) 2020 Fettouma Maa, Brahim Loummou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 72 85 10.5281/zenodo.4020475 Dividend distribution cultures and investment opportunities in Cameroonian SMEs: the relevance of methodological hybridity https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/32 <p>The objective of this article is to better understand the decision to distribute dividends to shareholders and to determine the impact of growth opportunities on them in Cameroonian SMEs. To achieve these objectives, we borrowed a combined (mixt approach), thus qualified as a “harmonious methodological marriage” The results from the qualitative study allowed us to have a panoramic vision of the different dividend distribution practices in Cameroon. This study was able to highlight new variables little dealt with in the literature such as the influence of the personality of the leaders, the corporate culture, the questioning of the explanatory power of the signal theory and confirmed the way in which dividend distribution cultures are carried out like the predictions of the agency theory. In addition, this qualitative study coupled with the quantitative study, benefited from secondary data through statistical and Fiscal Statements (DSF) over a period of 6 years; question to examine the subject’s relationship. In this sense, our empirical validation matches the work of Rozeff (1982)&nbsp;; Bajaj and Vijh (1990)&nbsp;; Wang and al., (1993), Agrawal and Jayaraman (1994)&nbsp;; La Porta and al., (2000)&nbsp;; Fama and French (2001)&nbsp;; Mancinelli &amp; al., (2006)&nbsp;; Kim and Gu, (2009) and contradicts the work of Walter, (1956); Brennan, (1970).</p> Romuald Temomo Wamba Aurelien Tchoufa Wanda Anderson Yannick Mbatchou Ntchabet Copyright (c) 2020 Romuald Temomo Wamba, Aurelien Tchoufa Wanda, Anderson Yannick Mbatchou Ntchabet https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 86 113 10.5281//zenodo.4063449 Vocational training in Morocco: Effects on wage formation and wage inequalities https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/33 <p><strong>This article aims to assess and analyze the role of Vocational Education and Training (VET), in the formation of wages and wage inequality in Morocco. For this, the data from the National Survey on Household Consumption Expenses of 2014 (ENCDM-2014) were used. The descriptive statistics essentially show that the average wage of individuals who have completed a VET cycle is systematically higher than that of those without VET for all levels of education, that of "without educational level" being the lowest. The wage gap between the two categories is considerably remarkable for individuals with a secondary education level. They also show that the wages in the agricultural sector are the lowest and the wages in the public service the highest. Wage inequality, measured by dispersion, is higher among individuals with VET compared to individuals who benefited from general education, for all levels of education and for all industries. Finally, the inequalities of opportunity due to education and training are higher compared to those due to the industry for example. Econometric analysis corroborated these trends observed by descriptive statistics.</strong></p> Mounir Zouiten Wafa El Gouz Copyright (c) 2020 Mounir Zouiten, Wafa El Gouz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 114 135 10.5281/zenodo.4020629 Supply chain resilience strategies: the case of pharmaceutical firms in Morocco https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/34 <p>The current environment is featured by disruptions such as fluctuations in demand, risks of relations with suppliers,…. Accordingly, the company needs resilience to alleviate these risks and continue operating its activities through main strategies that are underlined broadly by recent researches such as flexibility, redundancy and agility. This research aims to minimize the dearth of empirical researches in the realm of supply chain resilience strategies by investigating empirically the <em>proactive</em> and <em>reactive</em> strategies that improve resilience in pharmaceutical firms. In this research, the supply chain resilience strategies are basically related to. An empirical study was conducted in 33 the pharmaceutical firms. Afterwards, the response rates of participants were calculated for each of the supply chain resilience strategies (in “very great extent”). Accordingly, the results demonstrated that most of the strategies related to supply flexibility, demand flexibility, redundancy and the supply chain risk management process are applied very frequently. However, the strategies formulating the production flexibility are applied frequently (very extent) but not very intensively (not in “very great extent”). On the other side, these strategies aim to achieve resilience through proactive or reactive ability. Then, the analysis of results demonstrates that a large part of supply chain resilience strategies used by pharmaceutical firms are proactive and appertain to all elements of supply chain resilience (supply flexibility, demand flexibility, ….).</p> Chaimaa Darouich Youssef Dhiba Copyright (c) 2020 Chaimaa Darouich, Youssef Dhiba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 136 165 10.5281/zenodo.4021231 COVID-19 - Effects of Coronavirus on the European Sovereign CDS Market https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/36 <p>As coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spreads around the world, fear and uncertainty increase, driving financial markets and pushing the global economy into recession. Governments are addressing this pandemic with a mix of health, macroprudential, fiscal, monetary and market policies. In this article we assess the impact of the pandemic in Europe on sovereign CDSs using an event-study methodology. We find that a higher number of cases and deaths and public health containment responses significantly increase investor uncertainty in European government bonds. Other government policies amplify the short-term effect as supply chains are disrupted.</p> Oumayma Nadir Driss Daoui Copyright (c) 2020 Oumayma Nadir, Driss Daoui https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 166 176 10.5281/zenodo.4021395 Accounting standards for participatory banks in Morocco: Challenges and perspectives https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/38 <p>Despite all the progress made by the Moroccan government to ensure the successful establishment of participative banks, the accounting framework of these institutions is still unidentified and not properly understoodTherefor our article aims to identify and analyze the accounting framework likely to meet the requirements and demands of internal and/or external users of financial information. Our problematic aims to answer the following question&nbsp;: "what is the most appropriate accounting framework for Moroccan participative banks? ». In this regard, we will first try to draw on previous research work carried out in the field of Islamic accounting, and then we will conduct a qualitative analysis of the three accounting standards likely to be used and applied by Moroccan participative banks.</p> Mustapha Abniaz Hassan Sassi Copyright (c) 2020 Mustapha Abniaz, Hassan Sassi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 177 191 10.5281/zenodo.4021500 A theoretical analysis of the organizational impact of IS in the context of Moroccan exporting SMEs https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/39 <p>The use of Information System and Information and Communication Technologies has been viewed as vital for increasing export performance and entering foreign market. Bourgeois (1991) finds that innovation is also perceived as the engine and the real lever for exports within SMEs (cited by Gueguen et al., 2007). This paper studies the impact of ICT / IS on the organizational performance of exporting SMEs. This article will therefore present a theoretical model that integrates the various variables responsible for success of ICT / IS and consequently for increasing organizational performance in the case of SMEs. The study contributes theoretically to ICT/IS success models employing an exploration based on a meta-analysis of studies that evaluate the contribution of ICT/IS in the context of SMEs.</p> Asmaa Hatimi Mohamed Tahrouch Abdellah Aajly Copyright (c) 2020 Mohamed Tahrouch, Asmaa Hatimi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 192 209 10.5281/zenodo.4021620 Adoption of Localized Irrigation Technology (LIT) by Farmers in Zagora Province: Roles of Perceptions in Technology Attributes https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/41 <p>To support efforts to adapt to climate change coupled with water scarcity and to promote sustainable agriculture with high added value, LIT is one of the most significant means to improve water productivity in agriculture.</p> <p>In Morocco, despite efforts and financial incentives to accelerate the adoption of LIT, the areas currently equipped with this technology represent only a negligible part of the potential (El intidami and Benamar, 2020). Therefore, this study aimed to examine the role and influence of farmers' perceptions in the adoption of LIT.</p> <p>Estimation of the parameters of the binary logit model using SPSS version 25 software, based on data collected from 120 farmers in the province of Zagora showed that the variables, "Perceived Ease of Use", "Perceived Relative Benefit", "Perceived Compatibility", "Perceived Purchase and Installation Cost" and "Perceived Risk" were significant and play a very important role in the adoption of LIT by farmers in the study province. While the other explanatory variables, "Perceived Testability" and "Perceived Observability", were found to have no significant influence on the adoption of the technology.</p> Mohamed Elboukhary El Intidami Fatiha Benamar Copyright (c) 2020 Mohamed Elboukhary El Intidami, Fatiha Benamar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 210 229 10.5281/zenodo.4027350 Incidence of sanitary crisis of COVID-19 on indebted of Small and Medium Enterprises in Bukavu town https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/42 <p>In the wake of sanitary crisis of VOVID-19, a significant economic crisis has affected different touched countries. The decisions takes to limit the spreading of the virus are hardly having negative impact on local economies. The Small and Medium Enterprises particularly touched by this virus are the main victims of the current crisis.</p> <p>The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of sanitary crisis of COVID-19 on indebted of Small and Medium Enterprises in Bukavu town in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Our choice has pointed on Small and Medium Enterprises for they represent a significant segment of Congolese economy. They play a very significative role both on social and economic levels.</p> <p>To reach our objective, 139 Small and Medium Enterprises were our sample of study. To analyse the datas, we wed a methodology based on truncated regression.</p> <p>Considering this analyse, the obtained results via STATA 12 software, showed us that the indebted is statistically significative on the level of 1% (p= 0,000) and has a positive influence on the sanitary crisis of COVID-19. This results show that although the sanitary crisis of COVID-19, the Small and Medium Enterprises of Bukavu town were hardly paying back their contracted debts to financial Institutions but unfortunately the reimbursement were not being done in the respect of contractual agreement.</p> <p>The results also show that the sanitary crisis has been the source of many problems preventing enterprises to run their business normally such as the closing of borders, lookdown, the depreciation of the Congolese currency, the square of foreign currencies, etc. That’s why the Congolese government and/or the financial partners should give financial aids to Small and Medium Enterprises (for example subventions) in order to improve difficulties of treasury.</p> Joseph Akilimali Ntererwa Venant Kalimu Lukundji Copyright (c) 2020 Joseph Akilimali Ntererwa, Venant Kalimu Lukundji https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 230 247 10.5281/zenodo.4027483 A reflection on the possibility of quantifying the contribution of CSR approaches to the overall performance of the company https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/43 <p>At present, CSR approaches are increasingly integrated into the strategies of companies.&nbsp;They are responses to economic, social, financial and environmental crises that directly affect the company’s performance.&nbsp;Several works in management science have made CSR and the company’s performance research topics.&nbsp;But, to our knowledge, none of them has raised the question of quantifying the contribution of a CSR approach to the company’s overall performance.</p> <p>This article is intended to try to understand the relationship between the implementation of a CSR approach and the overall performance of the company, and the possibility of quantifying the contribution of the former to the achievement of the latter.&nbsp;We were able to know from the state of the art that the implementation of a CSR approach has a positive impact on the overall performance of the company, but the actual contribution of a CSR approach to the overall performance of the company is not easy to quantify due to technical, organizational and cultural constraints.</p> Khadija Aberji Abdellatif Bouazza Copyright (c) 2020 Khadija Aberji, Abdellatif Bouazza https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 248 263 10.5281/zenodo.4027682 New Public Management Practices: Moroccan public universities case https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/44 <p>This article examines the practices of New Public Management (NPM) in Moroccan public universities by exploring behaviors, discourses and perceptions. By mobilizing a theoretical and conceptual framework which is the result of a literature review around the concept of NPM. We are carrying out a qualitative study in the field through semi-structured interviews at the level of the presidencies of the twelve Moroccan public universities depending on Law 01.00 and under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, Vocational Training, Higher Education and scientific research.</p> Amal Laaribi Copyright (c) 2020 Amal Laaribi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 264 282 10.5281/zenodo.4027686 Crossed views: resistance to organizational change, what phenomenon and what prospects for conduct? https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/45 <p>Change management is a laborious and delicate task to implement, especially since the success or failure of the change is depending on it.</p> <p>Several variables can contribute to the complexity of change management. Mainly resistance, being the common parameter for any change.</p> <p>Thus, several authors agree that this phenomenon, so complex and so profound, and is the most decisive source of the failure of change.</p> <p>Referring to several authors, we attempt through this article to explain resistance of the change, to present its forms and origins, as well as to expose models offering perspectives for disarming resistance.</p> Fadoua Fouad Mohamed Tahrouch Abdellah Aajly Copyright (c) 2020 Mohamed Tahrouch, Abdellah Aajly, Fadoua Fouad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 283 300 10.5281/zenodo.4027688 Public performance in Morocco: A theoretical approach https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/46 <p>The New Public Management (NMP) involved several changes in the administration’s management methods. This new approach uses the management methods of the private sector to the public sector. Morocco is also one of the countries aiming for change and improvement. With a reform of the organic law of LOF 2011, it applies a new approach “The performance approach”. In this case what will be the contributions and the limits of this reform for the Moroccan administration.</p> Houda Taibi abdelhay Benabdelhadi Copyright (c) 2020 Houda Taibi, abdelhay Benabdelhadi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 301 313 10.5281/zenodo.4027698 The impact of the adoption of a corporate social responsibility approach on the missions of the management controller https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/47 <p>The purpose of this article is to study the impact of adopting a CSR approach on the management control function, and more specifically on the missions assigned to the management controller. For that, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study with the central direction of a Moroccan group belonging to the industry sector; considered as a responsible actor. The results of this study stipulate that the adoption of a social responsibility approach contributes to a slight modification of the missions of the management controller.</p> Sarra Mrani Zentar Ahmed Maimoun Latifa Akchar Copyright (c) 2020 sarra Mrani Zentar, Ahmed Maimoun, Latifa Akchar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 314 333 10.5281/10.5281/zenodo.4027704 Hospital performance in morocco and covid-19: application of data envelopment analysis and the Malmquist index https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/48 <p>This paper presents a model on the estimation of the technical efficiency of hospital supply in Morocco at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. This evaluation will allow us to compare the efficiency of the different provincial or prefectural public hospital networks, to measure the change in productivity during the 2012-2015 period and to project it into the future.</p> <p>&nbsp;The main objective is to know if the 2010 reforms including the Hospital Establishment Project (PEH), Accreditation ...etc. have improved the production process and optimized human and material resources (Doctors, nurses, number of hospitals in each province and bed capacity). Our estimated empirical approach, which is based on theories of production economy and efficiency, is based on a method called Data Envelope Data, it includes two models: constant returns to scale (CRS) and variable returns to scale (VRS). We add the Malmquist index to study the factors of production.</p> <p>The results show a big disparity in the hospital offer. It is the result of the decline in total factor productivity before the COVID-19 pandemic. It will therefore be necessary to double efforts to deal with this pandemic in the short, medium and long term. We found difficultie in the absence of statistics on inputs and outputs used during the 2016-2020 period.</p> Youssef Er Rays Hamid Ait Lemqeddem Copyright (c) 2020 Youssef Er Rays, Hamid Ait Lemqeddem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 334 352 10.5281/zenodo.4027715 The incentive purpose of tax expenditures in terms of tax collection in Morocco: case of companies’ tax https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/49 <p>The basic principle of the concept of “tax expenditures” is based on a process made up of two essential elements, namely the payment of the tax that would have entered the state budget, if the tax provision did not exist, and the expenditure. Of the tax granted in favor of the beneficiary up to the reduction provided for by the special provision. Indeed, the tax expenditure reduces the tax revenue of the state through the reduction of the tax payable by the taxpayer. It is this tax reduction that is behind the incentive of economic agents to change their behavior and thus contributes to achieving the objectives desired by the public authorities. However, when the taxpayer, for one reason or another, manages to reduce or not pay the tax, the incentive effect of the tax advantage becomes ineffective. In this context falls the objective of this article, which aims to shed light on the impact of the payment of tax on the incentive effect of tax expenditures. The results show that the more the taxpayer pays less or does not pay tax, the lower or even zero the incentive effect of tax expenditures, and vice versa.</p> Khalid Hossni Karima Touili Copyright (c) 2020 Khalid Hossni, Karima Touili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 353 367 10.5281/10.5281/zenodo.4027736 Crisis Management: Step by step to get out of the crisis https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/50 <p>There are two sides to the current pandemic crisis in the country. On the one hand, it is characterized by serious problems and a drop-in activity in companies, including their closure and bankruptcy. On the other hand, it is the period of "cleaning" of a commercial environment where it is left by weak and ineffective actors. For progressive companies, this is an additional chance to strengthen market positions, by using crisis management.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Khadija Benazzi Copyright (c) 2020 Khadija Benazzi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 368 374 10.5281/10.5281/zenodo.4027756 The impact of the COVID-19 economic crisis on the companies https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/51 <p>The corona virus pandemic, which is currently shaking the whole world and continues to raise many concerns, has changed the agendas of companies, which should reflect on the one hand, on the measures to be taken to face major shocks, and on the other hand, plans for the resumption and transformation of work in the future.&nbsp; These plans should enable business leaders and national officials to develop the resilience of society in the face of future systemic shocks.</p> <p>In this paper, we first seek to clarify the economic consequences of this new corona virus crisis. We then present a wide range of stimulus possibilities through ten proposals that every business can currently prepare to overcome the crisis.</p> Said Fadil Latifa Benazzi Copyright (c) 2020 Said Fadil, Latifa Benazzi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 375 383 10.5281/zenodo.4027768 The social responsibility of health organizations: A thoughtful public management tool https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/52 <p>Contemporary organizations have rethought their strategies by focusing on the implementation of the organizations' social responsibility approaches. These approaches contribute to the resolution of environmental, social and economic problems and with the sustainable development, which has become unavoidable. The hospital finds itself subject to the requirements of the governance-stakeholders-demand for care triad. It must, from now on, reconsider the management of its activities through the integration of éco-construction, the management of waste, energy the saving, the durable purchase, the respect of the standards social, humane, of quality and the environment. Thus, its governance and brand image will improve.</p> Hanane El fathi Abdelhay Benabdelhadi Copyright (c) 2020 Hanane El fathi, Abdelhay Benabdelhadi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 384 408 10.5281/zenodo.4027780 Business climate and attractiveness of FDI in Morocco: Literature review and state of affairs https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/53 <p>elements of the strategy of the Moroccan economy.</p> <p>That’s why; Morocco has been engaged for two decades in a series of reforms to improve the business climate and to attract more and more foreign investment through the implementation of necessary conditions for their attractiveness and adoption urgent specific measures.</p> <p>These investments are a powerful factor in economic take-off. They provide the necessary dynamism in terms of financing, technology and managerial and organizational know-how</p> <p>To better analyze the correlation between the improvement of the business climate and the attractiveness of FDI in Morocco, it would be better to grasp these concepts through a review of literature without forgetting to make an inventory of the said investments.</p> Dalal Mansouri Abdelmoumen Berjaoui Copyright (c) 2020 Dalal Mansouri, Abdelmoumen Berjaoui https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 409 422 10.5281/zenodo.4027807 Tax citizenship: How can we establish a climate of trust between the tax administration and the taxpayer https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/25 <p>a legitimate tax is a tax which requires careful attention to the political, sociological, legal and administrative conditions binding the individual and the state.</p> <p>In addition, a fair tax is a tax that is applied to everyone and according to the contributory capacity of each. When we talk about the issue of exemptions, for example, this comes back to some and nothing else which shows that the principle of equality is not respected. This is how, that equity is a better way to carry out the justification of tax inequalities which may be legitimate.</p> <p>one of the essential aspects of tax compliance with regard to taxpayers is to better understand their motivations for participating in the functioning of the tax system. That said, the tax administration has to offer a better service to meet the more specific needs of taxpayers.</p> <p>In addition, it should be mentioned that we notice more and more the involvement of companies in environmental and social issues. These two elements can be an integral part of companies' strategies and policies in order to reconcile them with their economic objectives. Thus, integrating taxation into environmental, social and societal policies will call for tax optimization of the burdens borne by companies in the area of ​​ethics. It is in this perspective that we will use concepts that have a close link with corporate citizenship, such as corporate social responsibility.</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to tackle through a theoretical reflection on the different aspects of the impact of non-tax instruments, namely tax legitimacy, fairness, tax ethics as well as social behavior. managers, etc. on tax rules in general.</p> M’barka El Ghazali HAMZA Benkendil Copyright (c) 2020 M’barka El Ghazali, HAMZA BENKENDIL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 423 440 10.5281/zenodo.4027815 Evaluate the performance of an incubator: proposal of a grid https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/54 <p>Entrepreneurial support is a profession that is developing day by day. The first support structures date back to 1959 in the United States of America and then spread to other countries of the world. Known under "Business support", we can count different types of structure. Nurseries, incubators, beehives or incubators, all called "incubators". Moreover, incubating is originally a practice before being a theory, that fact seems rather revolutionary in the world of management. Indeed, the first experiences of theorizing in this field go back to the beginning of the 80s with descriptive themes. Little by little, the reflections turned to exhaustive subjects, mainly the evaluation of the performance of support. This interest prompted us to propose this article, in which we attempt to present a theoretical framework for the evaluation of the performance of business incubators while proposing a summary grid of the different axes that define it.</p> Kenza Bouarara Mohamed Haddad Copyright (c) 2020 Kenza Bouarara, Mohamed Haddad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 441 459 10.5281/zenodo.4027825 Automobile insurance - analysis of the impact of switching determinants on the behavior of policyholders at the time of subscription of insurance contracts at the term of the contract https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/55 <p>The success of organizations depends not only on customer loyalty, but also on preventing customer attrition. However, little research has been done on the termination of the relationship between the firm and its clients. In other words, a better understanding of the nature, steps and factors involved in the termination process will make it easier to prevent and prevent termination while trying to recover lost clients and attract new prospects. By means of this study, we try to detail, through a literature review, the "determinants of churn" negatively impacting the relationship between companies and their customer portfolio, and complete the work with an empirical study in the automobile insurance sector describing the influence of these cessation factors on the insured’s act of commutation.</p> <p>The rate of termination, measured by the number of defecting customers relative to the total number of a company’s customers in a given period, appears to be a major concern for companies that are primarily service-oriented. The service activities of these organizations develop in close interdependence with the environment that imposes constraints on them. The internal structures of the latter, in order to cope with uncertainties, adapt to the types and conditions of the environment, which is neither static nor homogeneous. According to R. De Bruecker (1995), "the business environment is defined in relation to everything outside it : technology, the nature of the products, customers and competitors, other organizations, the political and economic climate, etc.". "In other words, it is subject to numerous constraints from its environment that it has absolutely no control over. J. R. Edighoffer (1998) notes that the objective of all companies "is to reduce this uncertainty; consequently, it is necessary for them to analyze and understand their environment ". A gradual deterioration in the services offered, the continuous evolution of the market, and constantly fluctuating customer attitudes explain why organizations choose to deal with customers who are increasingly difficult to apprehend and ready to change their supplier. Our work will focus on analyzing the impact of the factors that stimulate the act of terminating automobile insurance contracts at the end of their term.</p> Zakaria Rouaine Mounir Jerry Ahlam Qafas Ayoub Elassli Copyright (c) 2020 Zakaria Rouaine, Mounir Jerry, Ahlam Qafas, Ayoub Elassli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 460 495 10.5281/zenodo.4027833 Analysis of the impact of the behavior of front-office employee, trust and satisfaction on the customer loyalty of bank customers https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/28 <p>The front-office employee is an important source of customer loyalty, which contributes to the competitive superiority of the bank, since it is always in direct contact with the customer. Thus, their behavior is essential to maintain this relationship. The main objective of this article is to study the impact of the behavior of front-office employee, satisfaction and trust in the customer loyalty of bank customers. The analysis of the results confirmed the existence of a significant relationship between the different variables on the loyalty of bank customers.</p> Najwa Dorhmi Ilham El Haraoui Copyright (c) 2020 Najwa Dorhmi, Ilham El Haraoui https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 496 510 10.5281/zenodo.4029683 Prediction of credit risk: comparative study of scoring techniques https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/40 <p>Good control and management of credit risk has become the main concern of financial institutions, which are constantly developing models for analyzing, assessing and predicting this risk, particularly with the prudential standards required by central banks.</p> <p>Credit risk assessment and prediction methods are represented in the form of scoring models which aim to predict the potential vulnerability of a business using financial information and computable.</p> <p>The objective of our work is to study the different techniques of credit scoring, their interest as a powerful tool allowing to predict the solvency of the borrowers.</p> Siham Lotfi Hicham Mesk Copyright (c) 2020 Siham Lotfi, Hicham Mesk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 511 527 10.5281/10.5281/zenodo.4029645 Entrepreneurship and innovation logics: Fundamental Dilemma of Market Pull and Technology Push. A Case Study of leading Moroccan Cluster https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/35 <p>Innovation constitutes a strategic dilemma for managers. It originally means new ideas implementation through a firm’s processes which take a form of innovation practices that managers must perform while facing some fundamental questions related to technological opportunities and market needs within a local or regional ecosystem.</p> <p>Often, entrepreneurs in an innovative milieu seek the equilibrium between technology-push and market pull logics to foster innovation, and achieve successful competition (E. Von Hippel, 1988; P.Anderson and M. L. Tushman, 1990).</p> <p>For a long time, the classical school of management had recognized that innovation strategies are a direct consequence of technology (technology push paradigm). Even so, some radical changes have occurred during the last past years and induced the increase of firm’s R&amp;D expenditures, worldwide competition and short life cycle of inventions which in turn introduced a new kind of thought about innovation and entrepreneurial strategies (Schmidt, 2005; Sandmeier et al., 2004; Koen et al., 2001; Boeddrich, 2004).</p> <p>As result, appears a new paradigm called a dynamic model of innovation strategy (A shift from Technology-based to Market-driven innovation), while scholars and managers try to overcome all challenges that face entrepreneurs operating in high innovative and competitive milieu.</p> <p>In Morocco, the modern firm’s issues have taken the same importance as it happened elsewhere. That’s why public and private operators were thinking in a joint way the adequate framework to incubate new innovative SME’s and startups, especially in the industrial clusters.</p> <p>As a leading one, the M. Cluster of cosmetic and agri-food situated in the south of Morocco is presented as an individual case study of this theoretical work. The M. Cluster will help us to test the above paradigms and to understand in depth the structure, dynamics, and context of clusters in Morocco, using the information gathered with the qualitative method. Also, the present work will give us the ability to move from the analysis of a single case towards the comparative analysis of more cases.</p> Abdelaziz El Abjani Zakaria Ghafs Copyright (c) 2020 Abdelaziz El Abjani, Zakaria Ghafs https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 1 2 528 547 10.5281/zenodo.4021269