International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics <p>IJAFAME is a bi-monthly (one issue every two months) peer-reviewed scientific journal (Blind peer review), dedicated to research in finance, accounting, auditing, management and economics. Its objective is to promote research in economics and management while publishing original articles or articles adapted to a given context. It also provides a space for exchange between professionals and academics in order to find new research ideas and encourages theoretical and practical reflections developed according to different paradigms (positivist, constructivist, interpretativist, etc.).</p> <p>Paper's are published in english or frensh</p> en-US International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics 2658-8455 <div align="justify"> <p>All articles published in this journal are licenced uder a <a href="">creative commons attribution-noncommercial-noderivatives 4.0 international licence</a>&nbsp;</p> </div> An innovative organizational model: financial inclusion through securitization a hybrid model at the service of partnership-baseb solidarity finance <p>This article analyses the organizational mode developed in a microfinance and solidarity bond issue aimed at investors wishing to integrate social dimensions into their investment decisions.</p> <p>It unfolds around a network of partners who choose to issue a socially responsible partnership bond for investors. A "hybrid" partnership is created between portfolio management companies, extra-financial rating agencies, bankers and microfinance institutions. A microfinance platform has been created offering institutional investors wishing to invest in responsible finance the opportunity to recycle their assets. A securitization mutual fund has been created to act as a bridge between investors and microfinance institutions. A management company is positioned as a facilitator between the platform and investors offering advisory, origination, selection, asset monitoring and loan distribution services. Another management company is positioned as the main manager structuring the securitization mutual fund. The funds raised will be used to refinance the activities of microfinance institutions.</p> <p>The portfolio management companies, for whom these products are intended, then take the place between the "network" of partners organizing the bond issue and ESG-sensitive institutional investors. The effectiveness of this organization mode relies on the managers' confidence in the organization and their appetite for this type of product.</p> <p>We adopted an exploratory research design. Our choice to use a mixed approach is based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. As a first step, we use the case study method that is recommended when studying new fields, including an original research subject that is socially responsible obligation and which presents an innovative tool for directing funds to projects according to ESG criteria. Then, in a second phase, a quantitative study of fund managers completes our research by studying their appetite for this type of product.</p> Yasser Mayssour Copyright (c) 2020 Yasser Mayssour 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 1 19 10.5281/zenodo.4244159 The determinants of tax risk: an exploratory study in the Cameroonian context <p>The main purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of Tax Risk (R.F) perceived by the agents of the General Tax Directorate (DGI) sensitive of leading to an adjustment during a tax control mission. In order to attain this objective, the present study based itself on the literature and the General Tax Code to conceptualize the R.F in three dimensions. In terms of data, they were collected by a questionnaire to 58 DGI officers. Following Analysis by the method of Sorting flat and Main Component with Varimax rotation, the results highlights 8 determinants. This study also reveals that the risk of adjustment in the Cameroonian context is not necessarily as a result of a non-compliance with tax rules, but the fact of a quota (financial threshold) often imposed on agents. However, some data come from officers from divisional centers and may be less relevant to those which operate in the Management of Large Companies. Beyond these limits, the main originality of this study lies in the fact that a summary of the determinants taking into account the specificities of Cameroonian tax practice has been offered for the benefit of company managers.</p> Jimmy Rostand Tchoudja Njanbou Solange Mayegle Martin Njocke Copyright (c) 2020 Jimmy Rostand Tchoudja Njanbou, Solange Mayegle , Martin Njocke 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 20 37 10.5281/zenodo.4244217 The contribution of management control to improving governance in local authorities: Theoretical approach <p>Following the financial crises, which marked the last decade as well as the questioning of the control of local authorities, public managers are focusing on management control, as an alternative mechanism in the governance of local authorities. Thus, some researchers wonder about the translation of management control tools from the private sector into the public sector. In this context, we will study the understanding of the evolution of the implementation of management control tools in local authorities using innovative approaches.</p> <p>Governance issues invite researchers, politicians and citizens to reflect, since the concept occupies a fundamental place in the process of public management. In this context, research work and previous studies have underlined the role of management control as well as its contribution to the governance of local authorities. Given the current state of affairs, we will study the evolution of the implementation of management control tools and their contribution to improving governance in local authorities. We then explain the methodology pursued before presenting the discussion and the contributions as well as the perspectives of this exploratory research.</p> Salem Goumari Lhassane Jaouhari Copyright (c) 2020 Salem Goumari, Lhassane Jaouhari 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 38 57 10.5281/zenodo.4244417 An Investigation of Debt Sustainability issue in Gabon <p>The literature dealing with the issue of fiscal deficit sustainability (government's solvency) starts first with the great contribution of Hamilton and Flavin (1986), and further development by Wilcox (1989), Trehan and Walsh (1991), Hakkio and Rush (1991), Buiter and Patel (1992), Tanner and Liu (1994), Bohn (1995), Wu (1998), Makrydakis, (1999). The issue of debt sustainability analysis (DSA) highlights principally three main theoretical approaches in the literature: 1) Debt Ratio analysis; 2) the Present Value Constraint (PVC); and 3) the Accounting Approach. Using the present value constraint framework (PVC), our research follows the studies developed by Trehan and Walsh (1991), Hakkio and Rush (1991), and Bohn (1995) which have gained significant devotion in the macroeconomics literature. Hence, using yearly fiscal series data of Gabon over the period from 1980 to 2020, our study uses the stationarity and co-integration approach to investigate the issue of public debt sustainability in Gabon. We first apply the stationarity tests on the following fiscal series: government debt, fiscal balance, government revenue, expenditure, and as well as the ratio to GDP of the mentioned series before using the co-integration tests on government revenue and expenditure. The empirical findings highlight globally the non-stationarity of fiscal series while the Johansen co-integration tests don't show any long-run correlation between the government revenue and expenditure indicating the non-sustainability of Gabonese public debt.</p> Ulrich Ekouala Makala Khalil Nait Bouzid Copyright (c) 2020 Ulrich Ekouala Makala , Khalil Nait Bouzid 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 58 72 10.5281/zenodo.4281440 Performance assessment of business incubators: Towards a systematic literature review <p>It is only recently that research focused primarily on the performance of business incubators has gained ground. Identifying the scientific research work dealing with the question of the evaluation of these incubation structures remains a priority. It leads us to an understanding of the different factors of relevance and success of the incubated companies than the incubators themselves. That is to say, it is not possible to set successful incubated companies if they are located in incubators that are not. It emphasizes the need to understand the key factors that make an incubator successful.</p> <p>The objective of this research is to assess the current state of the literature concerning the performance factors of business incubators allowing to create a healthy and ideal environment and guaranteeing the success of their incubators. More specifically, this research aims at providing some answers to the following questions:</p> <p>(a) How is research represented on the performance of incubators (b) What are the most appropriate definitions of incubation; and (c) What are the different performance factors of business incubators.</p> <p>Hence, we conduct a systematic study of previous systematic literature reviews (RLS). We apply several searches (databases, keywords, research questions, selection criteria, etc.) in order to retrieve the related publications, which will then be selected and evaluated.</p> <p>Our results show that current research on business incubator performance factors is in its early stages. This situation calls for an intensification of investigative efforts in the form of a SLR on the different mechanisms of success of these incubators and even for their incubates.</p> Abdelouahed Jittou Razane Chroqui Copyright (c) 2020 Razane Chroqui, Abdelouahed Jittou 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 73 90 10.5281/zenodo.4281504 The consequences of the perceived organizational justice: a holistic overview <p>Organizational justice gained a bourgeoning interest in academic and corporate areas, it is a virtue of social organizations. In the working environment, individuals react depending on their perceptions. Therefore, perceived organizational justice is a behavioral concept that refers to the subjective description of the fairness of remuneration, decision-making processes and relationships within the organization. These justice perceptions have been empirically related to positive and negative consequences on attitudes, behaviors, and health such as greater identification and commitment, better organizational trust, increased job satisfaction, reinforced job performance, promoted employees’ organizational citizenship behavior, improved health and wellbeing as well as counterproductive behaviors. Despite the vigor of fairness research, the rapid flourishment of this literature has made relevant a variety of new issues. Hence, drawing upon equity theory and social exchange theory, this theoretical paper is designed to investigate the prominent literature in order to develop a holistic overview portraying the individual level of the perceived organizational justice and point out its salient consequences, based on recent theoretical and empirical research.</p> <p>It is anticipated that this paper will have a significant contribution to the advancement of organizational justice research literature and provide managers and scholars to get a better insight into harmonizing the relationship between employee and employers. Since, organizational justice has the potential to produce powerful benefits for organizations and employees alike.</p> <p>In the present paper, we discuss the main definitions and dimensions of organizational justice in accordance with the descriptive and subjective approach, in addition, we present the principal outcomes of fairness and unfairness treatments. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Chaimaa Zayer Abdelhay Benabdelhadi Copyright (c) 2020 Chaimaa Zayer, Abdelhay Benabdelhadi 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 91 108 10.5281/zenodo.4244522 A reflection on the impact of the practice of indicators on the school performance: academy of Guelmim Oued Noun <p>In&nbsp;the past two decades, the use of management tools have revolutionized the management and governance of educational systems. These tools of management are the result of a new market-managerial logic (known as the new public management NPM) infused into the public sector and made the State as a company using a performance-based government. For rationality, effectiveness and efficiency the new public management recommend being injected into the public sector the principles and instruments/tools of the private sector, in particular indicators. This article proposes an evaluation of the effect of indicators on the performance of schools in Morocco, a country which has undertaken administrative reform in recent years with a new performance approach inspired by the NPM movement. The objective is to examine the impact of the practice of indicators on the performance of schools. We used a quantitative method to test our research hypothesis. The results of this study are based on a sample of 189 schools principals from the four provincial directorates of Regional Academy of Education and Training of Guelmim Oued Noun. To collect empirical research data we used the questionnaire. The data analysis was done by ANOVA method using XLSTAT software.</p> <p>Our literature review will show that the main mission of indicators is the measurement and contribution to the continuous improvement of the performance, the use of an indicator device can contribute to the school’s improvement. Based on this literature review, we have are formed our hypothesis on the likely impact of the use of indicators on school performance.</p> <p>On a practical level, we used a quantitative method to test our research hypothesis. A survey was carried out among 189 schools using a questionnaire to collect the data necessary for our empirical study. Data analysis was done by ANOVA method using XLSTAT software. The results obtained respond in particular to our research problem. Two hypotheses have not been confirmed: the computerization of indicators and their integration into balanced scorecards does not have a significant impact on the performance of the schools that are the subject of our study. Contrarily, three hypotheses are confirmed: the frequency of use of the indicators, the use of specific indicators and the involvement of the school community in indicators practice have a significant impact on the performance of schools in our own context.</p> Mohammed Mazzine Mustapha Achibane Copyright (c) 2020 mohammed mazzine, Mustapha Achibane 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 109 137 10.5281/zenodo.4282079 Do funded pension systems protect against aging? A theoretical analysis <p>Since the 1980s, the concomitance of several unfavorable developments has highlighted the difficulties of pay-as-you-go pension schemes in ensuring their financial balance. Public pension systems have entered a crisis in several countries.</p> <p>Some believe that the only way out of this impasse is to break free from the “pay-as-you-go trap” by setting up funded pension plans. The main argument put forward is that, unlike the old public pay-as-you-go systems, a funded pension, based on individual savings, is immune to the problem of population aging.</p> <p>However, in this paper, we will try to show that, contrary to what is often argued, capitalization is not a system intrinsically protected against the consequences of demographic aging. With a generation smaller than the one that preceded it, it will be very difficult to finance pensions, whether by pay-as-you-go or funded. We must not lose sight of the fact that, fundamentally, pensions are nothing more than a drain on the work of those in active employment at the time the pensions are received. This basic reality may be barely visible in the case of a system based on individual savings, but it is nonetheless true.</p> Abdelaziz Baidane Copyright (c) 2020 Abdelaziz Baidane 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 138 148 10.5281/zenodo.4244283 Knowledge management and organizational performance: Abdelmalek Essaadi university cases <p>The huge quantity &nbsp;of information in our daily life and the continuous work to organize and use it in the best possible way has led to the emergence of knowledge management. On the other hand, the term "performance" has caused a lot of ink to flow.. This is a vocabulary widely used in the field of management. The quest for performance was the ultimate goal of all organizations.</p> <p>In addition, it has long been demonstrated that better knowledge management has a positive impact on organizational performance. However, it is not yet clear how this process is to be achieved in academia and particularly in developing countries such as Morocco. The main objective of this article is to address this issue by collecting the views of the Abdelmalek Essaadi University teacher-researchers, through a hypothetico-deductive reasoning approach and a quantitative working method. Our questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of 88 teacher-researchers from the different institutions of the university under study. The results obtained show a strong correlation between knowledge management and organizational performance and a low degree of application of the knowledge management process (creation-storage-sharing-application) at the university in question.</p> Ouail El Kharraz Yassine Boussenna Copyright (c) 2020 Yassine Boussenna, Ouail El Kharraz 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 149 168 10.5281/zenodo.4281558 The characteristics of family businesses, what influence on investment decisions ? : An essay of a theoretical exploration <p>Research on decision-making in family businesses is a rather special and critical task. This research aims to deepen the phenomenon of strategic decision-making precisely those related to investment choices within family firms while shedding light on their characteristics. In recent years, research on decision-making has increased remarkably, especially after the integration of behavioral factors as an influential variable, which has by default led to the rejection of the findings of rationality of decision makers. However, there is a gap in the literature when it comes to understanding this phenomenon in the context of family businesses, despite the fact that the latter have many characteristics and are unique in their genders compared to non-family businesses, it is important to note that much remains to be done regarding this discipline. Our research then aims to make a theoretical exploration by trying to expose the characteristics of the family business that give rise to a predominant degree of subjectivity that implicitly influence the investment decisions.</p> Hiba El Majhed Sidi Mohamed Rigar Copyright (c) 2020 Hiba El Majhed, Sidi Mohamed Rigar 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 169 182 10.5281/zenodo.4282064 The manager position in the Moroccan public administration: the question of legitimacy? <p>This research examines the foundations of the manager's legitimacy within the Moroccan public administration as well as its effect on the attitudes and behaviors of his collaborators. Research was conducted with 96 officials from different public organizations in the Oujda-Angad prefecture to evaluate some components of the manager’s legitimacy within the Moroccan administration.The results highlight the positive relationship between the legitimacy of the public administration manager and power as well as leadership. This legitimacy would then have a positive effect on the attitudes and behavior of collaborators towards their superior.</p> Abdelhay Benabdelhadi Hanane El kaout Copyright (c) 2020 Abdelhay Benabdelhadi, Hanane El kaout 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 183 199 10.5281/zenodo.4282143 Effect of Terrorism on Foreign Direct Investment in Burkina Faso <p>This article examines the effects of terrorism on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to Burkina Faso. The study uses data for the period 2015 - 2018, collected from the Global Terrorism Database and the World Bank. Using ordinary least squares (OLS) technique for data analysis, two models have been tested. Model 1 tests the immediate effect of terrorism on FDI flows. As for model 2, it takes into account the lag and is based on the principle that the effect of terrorist attacks is not immediate on FDI flow. The results of the two models show that terrorism does not explain the changes in FDI inflows to Burkina Faso over the period 2015 - 2018. But the study has important limitations: the sample size is very small for a matter of data availability. In addition, the models used do not take into account the media echo of terrorist attacks. This can be explained by a difficulty in quantifying this variable. However, despite these limitations and the results obtained through ordinary least squares (OLS) technique, it has been recognized that terrorist activity is a real obstacle to the country's economic growth. On the basis of this conclusion, recommendations and avenues for future research were highlighted.</p> Porobayiré Kambou Mohammed Khariss Copyright (c) 2020 Porobayiré Kambou, Mohammed Khariss 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 200 211 10.5281/zenodo.4282161 The impact of family control and internal governance mechanisms on dividend policy <p>The purpose of this work is to examine the determinants of the dividend distribution policy, more particularly we will highlight the effect of the involvement of family shareholders in the company and the internal governance mechanisms on the dividend payment decisions of companies listed on the Moroccan stock exchange. To answer our research questions, we used a TOBIT model estimate based on a sample of 160 observations per year-listed company over the period 2015-2018. The results of this study indicate a negative relationship between family ownership and the dividend payout ratio. In addition, the presence of a family CEO has a negative effect on the level of dividend distributed. In contrast, we note that the use of control mechanisms by pyramid structures does not have a significant impact on dividend distribution. In terms of the effect of the characteristics of governance mechanisms on dividend payments, we find a positive association between the presence of a second institutional block holder and dividend distribution. We also find a negative relationship between the duality of the board of directors and the distribution of dividends, while the presence of independent directors on the board of directors has no significant impact on the distribution of dividends.</p> Adil El mallouky khalid Elouafa Copyright (c) 2021 Adil El mallouky, khalid Elouafa 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 212 229 10.5281/zenodo.4282171 the assessment of business intelligence practices in agrifood SMEs supported by the Collective Intelligence Network Project in Burkina Faso: Case of 4 SMEs <p>The most competitive companies are those that adapt quickly to changes in their environment and take profit from information. The information thus becomes the raw material serving the decision. It is in such a context that the economic intelligence appears as an approach responding to this new informational challenge. Thus, the RIC project was initiated under the impetus of the CCI-BF to practically sensitize, train and support agribusiness companies to that concept. However, given the short deadline, the project has not moved to this phase of practical accompaniment. Nevertheless, it has been shown that SME managers are generally unaware of the importance of EI.</p> <p>Indeed, after having dealt with the concept of Economic Intelligence (IE), in its theoretical dimension, our field study on the evaluation of IE practices showed a quasi-non-existence of IE practices and highlighted the difficulties of SMEs in setting up an EI system within their company. In response to those limitations, our recommendations to CCI-BF are based on a conceptual model to guide practitioners and provide appropriate methods and tools. The purpose of this model is practical because it is based on the company culture and the specific needs of each company.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aimad Elhajri Ibrahim Kalil Toungara Ridouane Messaoudi Copyright (c) 2020 Aimad Elhajri, Ibrahim Kalil Toungara, Ridouane Messaoudi 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 230 247 10.5281/zenodo.4282233 Investing in Human Capital: emergency to the economic effects of Corona virus and guarantee the performance of Moroccan SMEs <p>Currently, the corona virus epidemic has impacted almost all companies that try as they can, to maintain their performance. It should be noted that a country’s wealth is no longer limited to GDP, but also concern new indicators of wealth. Indeed, we are referring to intangible capital which corresponds to the value accumulated by a country in the form of human capital. Since Man is the end and the means of development, Feumeto (2007) states in this sens that ‘improving public health nutrition and education must be a priority of any government committed to the fight against poverty. For healthy, well-nourished and well-trained human beings are the main players in development”.</p> <p>The aim of our article is to demonstrate how human capital can be a real economic issue that guarantees the performance of the Moroccan SME despite the difficulties encountered in the wake of the economic effects of the current outbreak of Covid 19.</p> <p>For the methodology followed, we chose the “interpretive” epistemological posture, and the ‘hypothetical-deductive” research approach. We opted for a questionnaire and half-directional interviews ( which were privileged materials) that allowed us to have a real analysis of the concrete. We followed the method mostly followed in management sciences, the deductive model, starting with a theoretical analysis, with led us to testable proposals, and then to field verification via a representative sample of 175 Moroccan SMEs.</p> <p>The results show that social performance leads to the overall performance of the company. If managers value their human capital, they gain in the performance of their business by earning a return on investment. Taking care of its employees, leads to their satisfaction, which leads to their performance, and this leads directly to a performance of the company?</p> Soumaya Dlimi Copyright (c) 2020 Soumaya Dlimi 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 248 265 10.5281/zenodo.4282261 Balance of payments constrained growth model: an Application for Morocco (1980-2018) <p>The aim of this study is to test the validity of Thirlwall’s Law in Morocco from 1980 to 2018 period using an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds testing approach. The empirical results suggest that import is co-integrated with relative price and income, and the actual growth rate was found to be equal to the predicted growth rate by the balance of payments. Thus, The thirlwall’s law holds for Morocco. &nbsp;This study proposes, also, some policy recommendations to reduce the trade deficits.</p> Anouar Majdoubi Lalla Zhor Alaoui Omari Copyright (c) 2020 Anouar Majdoubi, Lalla Zhor Alaoui Omari 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 266 276 10.5281/zenodo.4282431 Automobile insurance : Prediction of the act of cancellation initiated by policyholders and analysis of the impact of the items making up the determinants of unsubscribing on their behavior at the end of the term. <p>Almost all customer research has tended to focus on the concept of loyalty and loyal customers rather than on the drivers of change in service providers. Currently, service providers are trying to attract and retain customers through a variety of processes. These maneuvers come in response to the circumstantial requirements of the organizations' environment, such as high intensity of competition, low profit margins, similarity of services offered, technical and technological advances, etc. The importance of customer loyalty on the part of suppliers in the context of providers' profitability is defended by the work of Rust Roland T. and Anthony J. Zahorik (1993), Storbacka Kaj Tore Strandvik, and Christian Grönroos (1998), where they summarize that it is more profitable to collaborate with regular and loyal customers than to acquire new ones.</p> <p>On the other hand, a prospect's loyalty does not prevent him from terminating his relationship with his regular supplier. In such cases, it makes more sense to understand the reasons why prospects choose to switch suppliers, or in other words, to explore the reasons for dissatisfaction leading to their switching. In this vein, our article aims to predicting the act of the termination of auto insurance contracts at maturity initiated by the insured, and analyze the impact of an assortment of unsubscribing drivers on his decision to terminate his relationship with his current insurer.</p> Zakaria Rouaine Mounir Jerry Ahlam Qafas Copyright (c) 2020 Zakaria Rouaine, Mounir Jerry, Ahlam Qafas 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 277 297 10.5281/zenodo.4282383 Institutions and Economic Growth: The Doing Business Indicator and MENA region Economic Growth <p>MENA countries still suffer from dismal economic growth. Labor and capital are the main sources of this growth. Furthermore, the institutional environment and in particular business regulation can be its major determinant according to the literature.</p> <p>The region's performance in the facilitation of doing business ranking suggests that it still has work to do to improve its business climate. The estimation of a random effects model on a balanced panel of 13 MENA countries suggests the positive effect that proper business regulation has MENA economic growth. This positive effect seems to be more significant when the general institutional environment is favorable.</p> Issam Kouchad Brahim Dinar Copyright (c) 2020 Issam Kouchad, Brahim Dinar 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 298 318 10.5281/zenodo.4282337 Control: A development test of a systemic review <p>The field of control has experienced an enormous scientific production during the 20th century. A considerable number of scientific publications on this field have been published on different aspects of control (types, modes, tools, mechanisms….). In the scarcity of literature reviews of this concept, this work presents a bibliometric analysis of the concept of control with the aim of developing a bibliometric record based on the publications of the most influential researchers in this field. With the help of a computerized bibliometric analysis tool, this contribution will provide a summary of the scientific contributions on the concept of control during the 20th century, as well as the evolution of publications in this field, with the aim of constituting a roadmap for future research. For this purpose, the work on control has been subdivided into two main periods, the first of which runs from 1900 to 1950 under the name of classical philosophy of control, while the second, described as modern philosophy of control, covers the period from 1950 to 2000.</p> Hafid Oumechtaq Mohamed Tahrouch Abdellah Aajly Copyright (c) 2020 hafid oumechtaq, Abdellah Aajly 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 319 341 10.5281/zenodo.4282212 Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurship in Morocco: The Moderating Role of Public Policies and Institutional Support <p>Entrepreneurship is an opportunity for Moroccan women to gain access to income-generating activities. However, the participation of women in the Moroccan economy is only 26%, which remains very low according to the World Bank. For the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCDE, 2005), women represent a potential for devaluated enterprise creation in both developing and developed countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;In Morocco, several legal and tax reforms focusing on the support for entrepreneurship have been adopted as part of national economic restructuring programs. As a result, the implementation of public policies aimed at supporting women entrepreneurs, has certainly favored the development of women entrepreneurship contributing to the creation of jobs and economic benefit. However, the participation of women in economic and entrepreneurial activity faces cultural, social and institutional obstacles, which can hinder evolution of women's entrepreneurship.</p> <p>Despite the influence of emerging economies on the global economy and the vital role of entrepreneurship in our world, the focus of entrepreneurship research up until this point has almost exclusively been on research sites emanating from North America and Europe (Bruton et al., 2008). Consequently, other areas of the world such as the Middle-East and Africa have not received much attention from academic researchers despite the need to understand entrepreneurship in these emerging economies (Bruton et al., 2008; Kiss et., 2012).</p> <p>The theme of women's entrepreneurship has been the subject of several studies by both government organizations and researchers. Our goal is to present a state of the art in public policies implemented in Morocco in favor of woman entrepreneurship by presenting the set of public institutions and observatories operating for the promotion of women entrepreneurship.</p> Majdouline Hilali Fatima Zahra Achour Fatima Zohra Dehbi Copyright (c) 2020 Majdouline Hilali, Fatima Zahra Achour, Fatima Zohra Dehbi 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 342 357 10.5281/zenodo.4282314 Exports price and non-price competitiveness: comparative analysis between morocco and some emerging countries <p>Exports represent a major component of the economic growth of countries, especially for a small open economy such as the Moroccan economy. Since its independence, Morocco has invested a great deal of effort in order to gain its external balance. The blocking of its import substitution strategy between 1960 and 1962, based on the protection and development of local industry, pushed it to embark on a policy of openness and liberalization. The latter was concretized by the adoption of a promotion policy for exports and international outsourcing from 1983 onwards. In the light of the phenomenon of the globalization of the value chain and the internationalization of production, the country has been oriented towards a policy of specialization in new world trades since 2005.</p> <p>In spite of these efforts, the trade deficit continues to grow annually. This can be explained by the increase in imported products, which are indeed imperative and indispensable for the good functioning of the national economy. This observation implies the importance of improving the competitiveness of Moroccan exports. In this sense, the analysis of the determinants of Moroccan export competitiveness is judicious.</p> <p>This document aims to establish a comparative analysis of export competitiveness and its determinants between Morocco and certain emerging countries. The result of the benchmark enables to conclude the importance of structural factors as well as price factors in the improvement of the countries' export performance. The Chinese and Turkish experiences discussed in this document are rich in lessons.&nbsp; However, these models can inspire Morocco, which is still a young economy looking for pillars to withstand competition and stand out internationally.</p> Fatiha El agri Mounir Jerry Ahlam Qafas Copyright (c) 2020 Fatiha El agri, Mounir Jerry, Ahlam Qafas 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 358 372 10.5281/zenodo.4282400 Career management, an essential determinant for HRM performance: Case of ibn tofail University <p>In an increasingly competitive environment, marked by a flow of changes at a sustained pace, any organization is forced to adapt to this myriad of changes, a sine-qua-none condition for its survival and development. Resource optimization is key to standing out in a bitter competitive bubble. A crucial issue for success, performance is proving to be a major objective towards which any organization continues to eye, despite the absence of a single and standard definition of this concept. The performance of HRM, an important and decisive component, is conditioned by a set of determinants as varied as they create value, framing the missions of this function. The correlation between the performance of HRM and its determinants leads to their optimization and the search for the appropriate combination, as well as the strategic arrangements and the mode of operation capable of maximizing performance and promoting efficiency. The empirical part constituted by the case study of the Ibn Tofail University of Kenitra only corroborated these results while highlighting its specificities in the matter, in this case the two-headed management of these determinants, shared between the supervisory ministry and the university.</p> Hamid Ait Lemqeddem Siham Bouklata Copyright (c) 2020 Hamid Ait Lemqeddem, Siham Bouklata 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 373 386 10.5281/zenodo.4282321 Towards more flexibility of the exchange rate regime in Morocco: motivations and transition strategy <p>Economic history is marked by many events that revived the debate on the role of monetary policy and the exchange rate regime. The abandonment of national barriers, the interdependence of international financial markets, the repetition and contagion of financial crises, have led to a reconsideration of the choice of exchange rate regimes and the clarification of the arbitration they cover, Moreover, monetary authorities and economic policy makers have shown hesitation and distrust about the exchange rate regime to be adopted. The post Bretton-Woods era was marked by a rush for flexibility. Countries have now had the free choice to adopt the exchange rate regime best suited to their needs. Since then, this issue has not lost its timeliness and continues to be refreshed by new research perspectives. In Morocco, it is no longer a question of the choice between fixity or floating, but rather of the degree of fixity or flexibility to be retained, the current exchange rate regime is a fixed parity regime with the attachment of the dirham to a basket of currencies, mainly the euro (60%) and the dollar (40%), which has contributed to the establishment of a macroeconomic stability framework. It is in this perspective that the debate around Morocco’s transition to a floating exchange rate regime has resurfaced, the IMF says in this respect that. Together with structural reforms, this regime could help Morocco meet the challenges of competitiveness and likely contribute to boosting growth in the medium term.” Since 2013, Bank Al-Maghrib (BAM) has been working on the implementation of instruments (analysis and forecasting) enabling it to successfully transition to a more flexible exchange rate regime.</p> <p><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> Zineb Otmani Radouane Raouf Copyright (c) 2020 zineb otmani, Radouane Raouf 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 387 401 10.5281/zenodo.4282361 Renewable energy, economic growth and trade openness: An empirical analysis of the Kuznets environmental curve hypothesis in Morocco <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Morocco has started few years ago the deployment of renewable energies, particularly from wind and solar sources. The aim of this article is to test the validity of the Kuznets environmental curve in Morocco and to analyze the role of production of electricity from renewable sources on the reduction of CO2 emissions. For this objective, the relation between CO2 emissions, economic growth, and other explicative variables such as renewable electricity production and trade openness for the period 1990-2017 will be investigated. Autoregressive distributed lag model empirical approach and the Granger causality test will be used to study the causality between our variables and to test the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve for the Moroccan case. In fact, only few studies have investigated the validity of the environmental Kuznets Curve in Morocco, and no study has studied the renewable energy potential in this framework. Our results suggest that there is a strong reintegration between our variables and that the economic growth can be achieved in parallel with environmental politics that seeks for CO2 emissions limitation. The role of renewable energy in the reduction of CO2 emissions had been shown. However, our result didn’t confirm the environmental Kuznets Curve for the Moroccan case.</p> Chama El Moummy Baddih Hindou Yahya Salmi Copyright (c) 2020 Chama El Moummy, Baddih Hindou, Yahya Salmi 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 402 421 10.5281/zenodo.4282283 Factors and practices of retention of qualified employees in the very small Cameroonian company: an inventory of the situation <p>Management literature highlights a multitude of factors and employee retention strategies in companies. Our study seeks to understand this phenomenon in the particular field of small Cameroonian business. We adopt a qualitative approach by studying cases through thirty-seven interviews. At the end of the thematic content analysis, factors such as the work environment, work overload, and the specificity of career development are mentioned by employees as being causes of employee voluntary departure. qualified whereas they consider the weak hierarchy and the diversification of the tasks as being determining in their retention. At the strategic level, the desire to make it easier for employees and a recruitment that integrates the congruence between the vision of new employees and that of key employees are at the center of the retention plans for managers of very small businesses (from now on T.P.E.).</p> Issofa Gnignindikoup Rostand Yota Germain Sonkeng Copyright (c) 2020 Issofa Gnignindikoup, Rostand Yota, Germain Sonkeng 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 1 3 422 436 10.5281/zenodo.4282202