International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics 2021-10-05T19:34:26+00:00 Prof. Dr Zakaria EZ-ZARZARI Open Journal Systems <p>IJAFAME is a bi-monthly (one issue every two months) peer-reviewed scientific journal (Blind peer review), dedicated to research in finance, accounting, auditing, management and economics. Its objective is to promote research in economics and management while publishing original articles or articles adapted to a given context. It also provides a space for exchange between professionals and academics in order to find new research ideas and encourages theoretical and practical reflections developed according to different paradigms (positivist, constructivist, interpretativist, etc.).</p> <p>Paper's are published in english or frensh</p> The value relevance of IFRS 16 in the Moroccan context 2021-10-01T00:28:09+00:00 Dikra Elmaguiri Saadia Elouanbi Amine El ajimi <p>The implementation of IFRS 16 - Leases, on January 1, 2019, by introducing a unique model for accounting lease contracts for lessees, is supposed to meet the common objective of the international and the American accounting standard setters (IASB and FASB), to improve the method of accounting for leases (operating and financing) and provide accurate and relevant accounting information. In this context, this study aims to analyze the value relevance of the adoption of IFRS 16, in companies listed on Casablanca stock exchange, by employing the valuation framework developed by Ohlson (1995), widely used in the literature to assess the value relevance of accounting information by its ability to explain stock market prices. Results confirm those obtained by previous research on the value relevance of IFRS standards in Morocco, concluding that the transition to IFRS 16 did not lead to the production of more relevant financial information compared to the old standard (IAS 17). This study aims to enrich the current literature that is interested in the application of IFRS standards in the context of developing countries. Its results also help to inform accounting standard setters in these countries in their plans to modernize their accounting information systems. Our research nevertheless has limitations, including the size of the sample, given the optional application of IFRS in Morocco, as well as the relatively limited depth in terms of time since the transition to the standard in 2019.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL </strong><strong>Classification: </strong>M4.</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research.</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dikra Elmaguiri, Saadia Elouanbi, Amine El ajimi The Role of HRM Practices on Organizational Performance: Contribution of the Universalist Model 2021-10-05T19:34:26+00:00 Meryem Harmaz Zakaria Abbass <p>Human resource management (HRM) practices influence HR results. This is about both the motivation and the skills of the employees. These two variables, in turn, are likely to affect productivity, quality, service, safety, innovation as well as other operational results and, consequently, on the performance of companies. In this regard, the objective of this research is to examine the impact of HRM practices on the organizational performance of Moroccan small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Through a rigorous literature review, we have developed three main hypotheses relating to the link between HR practices (recruitment, remuneration and employee involvement) and business performance (sales growth, customer satisfaction, number of new products, market share), and a research model based on the universalist approach. To operationalize the latter, we administered around a hundred questionnaires to HR managers of small and medium-sized companies in the Fès-Meknes region.</p> <p>The results from logistic regression analyze show a positive relationship between certain HR practices and organizational performance. The conclusions also make it clear that companies stand out clearly from others in terms of HRM. In addition, companies with more individualized compensation systems set recruitment objectives that are appropriate to the overall strategy and promote employee involvement that can positively influence organizational performance. The article concludes that the HRM practices studied have such an effect on the organizational efficiency of Moroccan small and medium-sized enterprises in the Fez-Meknes region.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>O15</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Meryem Harmaz, Zakaria Abbass Success factors of very small businesses in regulated context: Case of Moroccan insurance brokers 2021-10-01T00:30:13+00:00 Lahoucine Outolba Abdelhaq Lahfidi <p>The development of small businesses and their success are part of many debates, both in academic and professional circles, with the aim of understanding the specificities of these businesses on which emerging economies depend. Variables acting on the success of these business types have been widely demonstrated through various previous research with a lack of intention for businesses in regulated sectors mainly characterized by the access factor, and the additional regulation. This observation may call into question the various results on the key factors of business success, evidently widespread in the entrepreneurial literature and consequently, leaves the question open on the validity of these success factors when we are dealing with small businesses in a regulated context. &nbsp;Starting from this problem, this paper tries to verify, through a sample of 318 very small enterprises (VSEs) active in the field of insurance intermediation in Morocco, whether the key success factors remain the same for regulated VSEs and if the specific regulations can affect positively the success of these small companies. The choice of the insurance intermediation sector finds its motivation in the importance of this highly regulated sector in the Moroccan financial sphere and also the specificities of this sector organized around companies of different sizes (mainly VSEs) who are in charge of the distribution of insurance and reinsurance products, designed initially by insurance companies and controlled by a governmental regulator. The data was collected true survey containing all variables considered to be explanatory of entrepreneurial success according to the literature. The target choice was made randomly, based on the list published by the regulator comprising all the approved insurance intermediation companies. The results of this research show that the variables considered to be explanatory of the entrepreneurial success of VSEs are not all valid for companies active in a regulated sector such as insurance. Indeed, the regulatory surplus standardizes the business model governing this profession and consequently allows, reaching an acceptable level of success with coverage of the various risks that could put the business in difficulty. As a result, we can admit that the equation of entrepreneurial success for small businesses change radically for an activity when it is framed by specific regulation and a supervisor in charge of its control.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>: M10</p> <p><strong>Paper type:</strong> Empirical research</p> <p class="keywords" style="line-height: normal; margin: 6.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;" lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lahoucine Outolba, Abdelhaq Lahfidi Ethical Leadership Antecedents Review: Call for More Research Contextualization & Proposition of Conceptual Framework 2021-10-01T00:31:21+00:00 Laila Frija Redouane Barzi <p>Ethical leadership has been investigated as a standalone area because of scholars’ notable focus on ethical leaders’ behaviors instead of examining other leadership styles’ (e.g., transformational, transactional, charismatic leadership) ethical dimensions. The present article reviews ethical leadership literature focusing on variables driving its emergence. The area with most hanging fruits is the role of individual traits (e.g., personality traits, Kalshoven et al. 2011; and moral identity, Mayer et al. 2012) in shaping ethical leadership. However, still little is known about context’s contribution in understanding leaders’ important ethicality. To address this gap, based on Johns (2006) context framework, we have recognized and classified existing antecedents from a context stand, and analyzed their effect on ethical leaders’ emergence. Yet, the empirical research body exploring contextual variables is focused on specific areas and is not systematic. At discrete context level, organization’s characteristics (e.g., ethical climate, organizational justice) and social network have important credits in forming ethical leadership with a deficient focus on omnibus contextual variables. Our review raises calls for considering three main avenues. Firstly, we encourage more research about omnibus contextual factors specifically “when” and “who” to make the story telling about ethical leadership predictors more comprehensive. Secondly, since they are nested within the omnibus context, discrete contextual factors might be considered for their possible moderating effect on the investigated relationship. Thirdly, as contexts are dynamic, interactionist approach between omnibuses and discrete contextual variables can offer meaningful discussions about ethical leadership. A framework (figure 2) is proposed enclosing individual traits and contextual factors impacting ethical leadership.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>D23, O15</p> <p><strong>Paper Type: </strong>Theoretical Research</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Laila Frija, Redouane Barzi The influence of gender on psychological factors in the cosmetics sector 2021-10-01T00:32:11+00:00 Bernadette Nathalie Ngono Eteme Melingui <p>Currently, the cosmetics industry is flourishing all over the world. It no longer seems to be the preserve of women. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of gender on the psychological variables of cosmetic consumption. To answer this question, a review of the literature and semi-structured interviews with a sample of 19 consumers made it possible to select relevant variables for the study. The exploration was followed by a data collection phase with 279 consumers using a questionnaire. Following the analysis of flat sorts, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation and the comparison of the means test, the results show significant differences in consumption according to gender. Explicitly, the results show that compared to men, women are more sensitive to brands and more involved in the toilet milk category. They also indicate that both men and women are concerned about their self-image and are influenced by their environment when it comes to cleansing milk. The managerial implications of this research may have a strong impact on gender-based brand segmentation and positioning strategies. Although this research is conducted on a single product category and in one region of the country, it has the merit of drawing on behavioral change theories to study a field of investigation little explored in the Cameroonian context.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>M3 ; M31 ; M37&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Type of article: </strong>Applied research</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bernadette Nathalie Ngono Eteme Melingui The impact of the adoption of IFRS standards on the informational relevance of financial performance indicators of companies listed in the Casablanca BVC 2021-10-01T00:32:42+00:00 Adil Laouane Mohamed Torra <p>The adoption of international financial standards should provide companies with enormous benefits, especially through the production of reliable and high-quality financial information by strengthening the explanatory power of accounting and stock market performance indicators. These indicators are key elements used to assess the value created by firms. This article is proving to be a great contribution to scientific research in this field. It will allow an empirical approach to assess the impact of the adoption of IFRS standards on the informational relevance of financial performance indicators. In figures, 93 observations were collected from companies listed on the Casablanca stock exchange from 2015 through 2020. We used a theoretical framework based essentially on the theory of financial market efficiency and a series of empirical tests on the two samples: IFRS- Sample Standards and Local- Sample Standards. Ultimately, our main results seem to indicate that the implementation of IFRS standards contributes to slightly to the improvement of the informational relevance of accounting figures for Moroccan companies listed in the Casablanca stock market.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL classification&nbsp;:</strong> M41</p> <p><strong>Paper Type&nbsp;: Empirical research </strong></p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adil Laouane, Mohamed Torra The evolution of purchasing behavior with COVID19 : the case of Morocco 2021-10-01T00:33:31+00:00 Ouiam Khairi Fatima Ezzahra Mnajli Mounia Bennani Habiba Bensassi Nour <p>The Covid-19 crisis is a completely new situation that has had a heavy impact on the whole world, it is a health crisis that has quickly become a multidimensional crisis by also becoming an economic and social crisis. In this context, Morocco has not been an exception.</p> <p>Consumers are very concerned about the repercussions of the Covid19 whether it is on the sanitary or economic level, their reactions to this virus diverge, their behaviors and buying habits tend to change during this crisis situation, as they strive to adapt to this new normality.</p> <p>Purchasing concerns have focused on basic goods, with an increase in the consumption of hygiene, cleaning and basic necessities. On the other hand, the consumption of non-essential goods has fallen.</p> <p>This article seeks to show the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on the change in the purchasing habits of Moroccan consumers through a quantitative study.</p> <p>On the theoretical level, this article aims to bring a richness to the analysis of consumer behavior in times of crisis. On the managerial side, the objective is to allow companies to better manage the crisis and to adapt their communication thanks to a better understanding of the change and the convergences of consumer behavior and the buying habits in front of the crisis.</p> <p>The implications of this article are to reveal to companies, and more precisely, to marketers the changes in purchasing and consumption behavior observed following the COVID-19 pandemic</p> <p>The Covid-19 crisis has amplified behaviors among Moroccan consumers, such as ethical behaviors and health concerns, the emergence of paradoxical consumer behaviors that favor both quality purchases but at the best price, the shift in purchasing habits toward necessity purchases, mass purchases, and the postponement of purchases.</p> <p>Moroccan consumers have reconciled themselves with online shopping, which has increased considerably and has been a good purchasing alternative during this crisis period.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : M39</strong></p> <p><strong>Paper type : Empirical research</strong></p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ouiam Khairi, Fatima Ezzahra Mnajli, Mounia Bennani, Habiba Bensassi Nour The role of social capital in the financial accompaniment of SMEs: A literature review 2021-10-02T22:38:20+00:00 Zouhair Boumlik Badia Oulhadj Khaddouj Karim <p>Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important and crucial role in both developed and developing countries. They contribute significantly to economic growth through employment opportunities, productivity, entrepreneurial improvements, and innovative solutions. Indeed, the role of SMEs is well recognized as an engine of socio-economic development. However, these special entities are increasingly facing problems and constraints in accessing financial resources that hinder their growth and development. The problem of financing of these SMEs is mainly due to their characteristics, which include opacity, information asymmetry and financial fragility. Indeed, the characteristics of small and medium enterprises have been widely recognized in literature as weaknesses and obstacles that reduce and limit their ability to access to external resources.</p> <p>In the current context, small and medium enterprises are increasingly trying to design and develop new strategies and skills in order to gain access to the financial resources. In this respect, a large and growing body of literature focused on social capital development strategies as one of the alternative solutions. Indeed, the relational skills and social capital of managers are fast becoming a key factor that increases SMEs’ access to the resources inherent in the social networks to which they belong.&nbsp;</p> <p>The present article is a theoretical review that aims to provide an overview on key concepts and shine new light on the potential impact of managers' social capital on the financial accompaniment of small and medium-sized enterprises. Also, we proposed a conceptual model based on a theoretical framework that draws its origins from the foundations and contributions of the social capital theory and recent empirical works.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>M10</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Zouhair Boumlik, Badia Oulhadj, Khaddouj Karim Governance and innovation obstacles in Moroccan SMEs-SMIs 2021-10-01T00:35:58+00:00 Fatine Bennani Lahboub Zouiri <p>At a time when innovation is increasingly recognized as a key driver of growth. In each country, SMEs have an important role to play. As a result, several studies focused their research on the favorable factors for innovation. However few of them focused on its obstacles. The aim of this study is to analyze innovation through to opposite approach, by putting under a scope the analysis of the different obstacles faced by Moroccan SME’s during the innovative process. They recommend a systemic approach of the innovative policies that must take into account the established complementarities.</p> <p>To overcome barriers of innovation related to excessive economic risks, high costs of innovation or lack of appropriate sources of funding,&nbsp;we conducted a survey on a sample of 328 companies that have exercised an innovative activity during the last three years, with the goal of identifying the barriers to innovation within these companies. Our results suggest the important role of the state and foreign entities in the social capital, as well as that of partnerships and technical cooperation.</p> <p>At the end of this paper, the results show that the ability of small and medium-sized enterprises to innovate result from a complex internal and external process which, given the limited resources available to SMEs, must rely on efficient innovation systems at different levels.</p> <p>Our research aims to provide decision-makers (at the level of company and various stakeholders) with useful results for their innovation strategies and policies, and approaches to mitigate in the short term, and to overcome in the medium and long term the obstacles of innovation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>O3, O11, O16</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fatine Bennani, Lahboub Zouiri Research productivity at public universities: Evidence from Morocco 2021-10-01T00:36:49+00:00 Fatima Ezzahra Kabba Zouhair Ejbari <p>The main objective of our article is to analyze research productivity at Moroccan public universities. This study contributes to the rare literature that exists about African research productivity in general and research at Moroccan public universities especially.</p> <p>Research production of Moroccan public universities in 2018 represents 85.26 % of total Moroccan scientific production which makes this study important.</p> <p>Our study focuses on the period 2008 to 2018, we use the most recent available data and we include all Moroccan public universities. We use bibliometrics indicators in order to evaluate research at Moroccan public universities.</p> <p>We use the number of publications per professor to analyze professor productivity and the number of citations to measures how a paper has contributed to research and science, those indicators have some imperfections but are generally accepted by the scientific community.</p> <p>The results of our study indicate that research productivity at Moroccan public universities is low, but it’s slightly improving over the years.</p> <p>The citation of published Moroccan papers is improving, and the articles published in the 100 best Scopus journals are better citer than those published by comparable countries like Algeria and Tunisia, which means that Moroccan research has a potential for development.</p> <p>The teaching pressure, the funding research system, and the promotion of the human resource policy can be an explanation. To improve research productivity of Moroccan public universities, we propose some recommendations like the reform of the promotion system, the introduction of financial and non-financial initiatives and the simplification of the funding circuit of research projects and publications.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: &nbsp;</strong>H52, I23, I28</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fatima Ezzahra Kabba, Zouhair Ejbari Social welfare and inequalities in Morocco: A theoretical and empirical analysis 2021-10-01T00:37:54+00:00 Najib Bahmani Mustapha Jaad <p>Since the beginning of the twentieth century, when the concept of "Well-being" has found its new place in economics, the welfare economics, has since consisted of evaluating economic situations, and mainly, the terms of distribution. The debate that was before is only about the measurement of value and utility. Happiness, or well-being, was synonymous with anything that provides satisfaction without necessarily being "useful", yet the relativity of measuring utility was simplified by cumulative aggregation. Indeed, collective well-being represents the sum of the levels of well-being (or utility) of the individuals who make up the community considered. The useful is therefore anything that contributes to maximizing social well-being.</p> <p>Utilitarianism, through functions of marginal utility, has made it possible to identify the optimum of collective and social well-being. On the other hand, and according to the principle of maximization of the sum of well-being, the hypothesis of an equitable distribution of shares, in particular of income between the members of a society, requires that the marginal gain in well-being, in the allocation of resources to different individuals, ie the same everywhere. The fundamental and recapitulated matrix of utilitarianism was uttered by Jeremy Bentham: <em>"The greatest happiness of the greatest number is the measure of just and unjust."</em> The utilitarian doctrine was therefore crucial in the development of several theories in economic and social sciences. We cite in particular the theory of justice. The latter stipulates according to its founder John Rawls, that Men are too egocentric and selfish to determine the principles of fair and equitable distribution of wealth: they seek only to derive their own benefit.</p> <p>Through a theoretical base which presents the economy of well-being, and the theory of justice, our article will deal with the problem of economic inequalities and its perspectives on the attainment of social well-being, in its most extreme ideal’s conditions. However, the quest to maximize individual and social well-being was also the subject of several critiques of the utilitarian approach. The cross-sectional analyzes, which we will undertake, will thus allow us to focus our gaze on other modern theories, namely general equilibrium theory, social choice theory, capability theory, and also that of social justice.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>I31; D63; H75; P36; P46.</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research </p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Najib Bahmani, Mustapha Jaad The intention of adopting collaborative carpooling platforms during the Covid-19 pandemic crisis: Proposal of a conceptual model 2021-10-01T00:38:52+00:00 Fatima Ez-Zahra Moustaid Bouchra Lebzar Jean-Yves Moisseron <p>In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic health crisis, several economic sectors have been impacted, particularly transportation and mobility. Economic and marketing research in this period of crisis has largely focused on examining several themes, with little attention paid to other innovations in collaborative consumption. The purpose of our paper is to propose a conceptual model that aims at theoretically examining the intent of the adoption of carpooling platforms during the pandemic crisis through the integration of two theoretical models, namely, the technology acceptance model and the theory of innovation diffusion. Innovation diffusion theory is a well-established theory to explain how innovation diffuses in an environment (Wang et al., 2012), while the technology acceptance model has been widely used in several disciplines to study how individuals accept the adoption of new technologies (Kim, 2016; Morosan &amp; DeFranco, 2014). However, while the similarities between the two theories have been recognized and the literature has linked the two to understand consumer technology adoption behavior (Lee et al., 2011), few studies that have integrated these two theories from the consumer's perspective. The theoretical model proposed by this research work suggests that compatibility, relative advantage, complexity, observability, and social influence will influence both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which in turn will explain attitude toward adoption, and finally, attitude will influence consumers' intention toward adoption of ride-sharing platforms. This study will fill the theoretical knowledge gap by focusing on the adoption behavior of online ridesharing platforms.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>M31</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fatima Ez-Zahra Moustaid, Bouchra Lebzar, Jean-Yves Moisseron The study of the voluntary disclosure of information about intangible capital in the light of agency theory and signal theory 2021-10-01T00:39:42+00:00 Hanane Aamoum Soufiane Nakri <p>The objective of this paper is to theoretically study the determinants of the voluntary disclosure of information on intangible capital by mobilizing the principles of two dominant theories in management; signal theory and agency theory. The study of signal theory has informed us about the motives and reasons why companies communicate about their intangible capital to know if the information published voluntarily can be considered as a signal which can contribute to the reduction of the problem. Information asymmetry. Signal theory believes that if executives do not disclose all the private information they have, investors rate the quality of financial products (stocks, bonds) as mediums. This should encourage managers to report the quality of their entity so that the investor can properly judge the value of the products.</p> <p>On the other hand, the richness and depth of agency theory have made it possible to identify the determinants of this voluntary disclosure of information about intangible capital. The latter is an essential component for the creation of value within companies in an economic environment that is increasingly intangible and that service activities represent more than 70% of the GDP of economies. The main motivations behind this disclosure are; better valuation of assets and increased investor confidence as well as a better perception of the firm and the main determinants that emerge from our study are: the capital structure, the level of indebtedness, the size and business performance.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification :</strong> M31, L67</p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> Theoretical Research.</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hanane Aamoum, Soufiane Nakri Determinants of entrepreneurial success in times of health and economic crisis: The case of SMEs in the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra region 2021-10-01T00:40:48+00:00 Dina Ait Lahcen Mustapha Oukassi Nour Eddin Amghar <p>SMEs are the backbone of any economy (Eggers, 2020). Thus, when the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, the entire economy was put at risk and SMEs were hit hard.</p> <p>The first figures seem to be alarming, but the prospects for emerging from this vortex remain optimistic. At the end of 2020, more than 95% of Moroccan SMEs have been able to maintain their activity (HCP, 2021), many of which have shown resilience and agility and have been able to overcome the devastating effects of the crisis.</p> <p>Our research aims, then, to study the key determinants explaining the success of Moroccan SMEs in times of health and economic crisis COVID-19 by focusing on three main dimensions: the environment, the entrepreneur and the resources mobilized.</p> <p>To this end, we conducted a qualitative study through individual semi-directive interviews with a simple random sample of 20 entrepreneurs operating in the Rabat-Salé-Kenitra region.</p> <p>The results obtained showed that although the Moroccan government has developed a wide range of support measures for SMEs, the majority of the entrepreneurs considered that the success of their business is mainly due to endogenous factors related to their commitment, their motivation and the resources at their disposal, and secondarily, to exogenous factors related to the characteristics of the context and the opportunities offered by the environment in which they operate.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>H12, P47, F64.</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research.</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dina Ait Lahcen, Mustapha Oukassi, Nour Eddin Amghar