https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/issue/feed International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics 2022-06-06T23:13:21+00:00 Prof. Dr Zakaria EZ-ZARZARI zakaria.ezzarzari@uit.ac.ma Open Journal Systems <p>IJAFAME is a bi-monthly (one issue every two months) peer-reviewed scientific journal (Blind peer review), dedicated to research in finance, accounting, auditing, management and economics. Its objective is to promote research in economics and management while publishing original articles or articles adapted to a given context. It also provides a space for exchange between professionals and academics in order to find new research ideas and encourages theoretical and practical reflections developed according to different paradigms (positivist, constructivist, interpretativist, etc.).</p> <p>Paper's are published in english or frensh</p> https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/630 Economic growth and education in Morocco: Cointegration and Toda Yamamoto Granger Causality 2022-06-06T12:03:18+00:00 JABER JABER yassinejaberpfe@gmail.com Ismail KABOURI kborismail@gmail.com Mohamed BOUZAHZAH mobouzahzah@gmail.com Aomar IBOURK aomaribourk@gmail.com Mohamed KARIM xmedkarimx@gmail.com <p>This paper aims to investigate the cointegration and causal effect of economic growth and education in the case of Morocco, over the period 1990 to 2019. Education in all of it’s forms, considered a fundamental factor of development. Therefore, a country needs to invest more in education. Without a significant investment in education (or human capital), no country can achieve sustainable economic development.&nbsp;</p> <p>Several studies have used various proxies for education, which is the enrollment rate at primary, secondary and tertiary levels (Chatterji, 1998). However, in our study, the quantity dimension of education is proxies by primary, secondary, and tertiary enrolment ratios and an education index.</p> <p>To investigate the relationship between education and economic growth the Auto-regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach developed by Pesaran et al., (2001) and the Augmented Granger Causality approach given by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) are applied. To do that, we have used time-series data on economic growth, labor force, physical capital and four separate education indexes from 1990 to 2019. The data are collected from the World Development Indicators (WDI) and Human Development Reports (HDR). Furthermore, we used a global measure of education, called the education index, by adopting the UNDP methodology. The education index is a proxy for education development. The several indicators were used to demonstrate the robustness of the empirical results. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Our results of the ARDL-bound test show that there exist cointegration between economic growth and education. The results also show that there is bidirectional causality between education and economic growth. All levels of education Granger cause economic growth, while economic growth causes all indicators of education except gross enrollment ratio, primary in all cases of causality analysis.</p> <p>These findings suggest that the government should invest in gross primary enrollment to accelerate economic growth, which leads to further education and thus economic growth.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong><em>C5 C22, I25, O4</em></p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T08:39:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 JABER JABER, Ismail KABOURI, Mohamed BOUZAHZAH, Aomar IBOURK, Mohamed KARIM https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/619 Tax holidays and FDI inflows in ECOWAS countries: Application of PMG approach 2022-06-06T12:03:19+00:00 Somia GHRARA somiaghrara@gmail.com Brahim ELMORCHID somiaghrara@gmail.com <p>Developing countries use tax incentives in the hope of attracting foreign investors, but questions remain on the effects of these profit-based policies. This article reviews theoretical explanations of tax holidays, and empirically analysis of the impact of tax holidays on foreign direct investment in a selection of ECOWAS countries. The objective of this paper is to examine the short-term and long-term relationship between tax holidays and investment. In considering whether tax holidays facilitate or undermine development, we prepared a dataset for three members of the Economic Community of West African States: Nigeria, Ivory Coast and Ghana, for the period from 1990 until 2019. Using the autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL), estimated by the PMG (Pooled Mean Group), it seems that tax holidays, regardless of their length, are not effective in&nbsp;triggering investment inflows. The econometric estimate enabled us to confirm that tax holidays are negatively correlated with gross fixed capital formation. For the first model, for which Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) represents the endogenous variable, tests conducted showed that tax holidays have a significant negative effect on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows to the three countries and a negative and statistically insignificant elasticity for the second model.&nbsp; As a result of these achievements, supported by references in the literature, this type of incentive policy often concerns short-term investments whose profitability is cyclical in nature. It has even turned out that it could be harmful, which raises the question of why States continue to implement them.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>F21, H25, E62, C32, H87</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T08:58:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Somia GHRARA, Brahim ELMORCHID https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/597 Education and foreign direct investment: An empirical analysis of the case of Morocco 2022-06-06T12:03:19+00:00 Abderrazak EL HIRI elhiriabderrazak@gmail.com Maryem EL ACHABI maryamelachabi@gmail.com <p>The emergence of globalisation as the predominant configuration of the world economy has contributed to a reassessment of the place and role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in national economies. Many variables have been examined in the literature as determinants of FDI, with human capital being one of the most important determinants of inward FDI. It plays a vital and indispensable role in the process of economic growth, development and innovation by improving the social welfare of people. The relationship between FDI and human capital has become a subject of growing interest. The role of human capital in attracting foreign direct investment has been widely identified in the literature. In this paper the emphasis is on the importance of human capital as an explanatory variable that further drains foreign direct investment to our country. This paper studies the impact of human capital on the attraction of FDI in Morocco, by conducting a time series econometric study using the error correction model (ECM) over the period 1990-2019. We find that the human capital associated with graduates of regular academic institutions as well as the number of graduates of institutes and colleges appears insignificant. Moreover, even if the human capital associated with master and doctorate graduates is significant, its effect on the attractiveness of FDI in Morocco remains negative. While the number of graduates in vocational training has a positive impact on the attractiveness of FDI. These results suggest, moreover, that it is rather the graduates from professional training courses that seem to constitute a powerful engine of FDI attractiveness.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Classification JEL&nbsp;:</strong> C51, E22, F21, J24, I21</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T09:05:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abderrazak EL HIRI, Maryem EL ACHABI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/634 Mechanisms of influence of communication related to Moroccan ready-to-wear brands in virtual communities on consumer behavior: a netnographic approach 2022-06-06T12:03:20+00:00 Sabrine ABOUDOU sabi.aboudou@gmail.com Ichraq HAMMOU Ichraq.hammou@gmail.com Youssef MAKLOUL zakaria.ezzarzari@gmail.com <p>In the era of digitalization and the use of virtual communities, consumers purchase intention is a privileged area of ​​academic research in marketing. Understanding it could enable brands to better act in the face of behavior leading to the act of purchase by an individual and which becomes more and more changing following numerous stimuli. This study looked at the influence of brand-related communication at the level of virtual communities on consumers purchase intention. Thus, the study aims to study this relationship with the main objective which is to detect, through what brands and consumers convey on the web, the main components presented by consumers. To carry out this research, we used the method of netnography for exploratory reasons which aim to analyze what is communicated on virtual communities about Moroccan ready-to-wear brands by the brands themselves and especially by Moroccan consumers. The collection of reviews published by our targets, from 5 virtual brand communities on Instagram and 7 virtual consumer communities on Facebook, enabled us to retain a fairly consistent textual database, the use of which was recorded in an analysis textual data (ADT) using "Iramuteq" word processing software, this software allowed us to have an overall visibility of the terms contained in the texts submitted to it using graphical representations which we had to interpret in order to answer our research question.</p> <p>The results of the research imply the existence of a strong influence between brand-related communication at the level of virtual communities and consumer purchase intention. But also the integration of certain variables in the process and the analysis of the effects of which reveals significant results.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>M3</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2022-06-06T09:11:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sabrine ABOUDOU, Ichraq HAMMOU, Youssef MAKLOUL https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/637 The impact of stock market development on economic growth in Morocco: An analysis using the VAR approach 2022-06-06T12:03:21+00:00 Rachida EL YAMANI RACHIDA.ELYAMANI@univh2c.ma <p>The determination of the factors that can stimulate economic growth has been important, and given the importance of the stock market in economic development, a serval researches are interested in the analysis of the relationship between stock market development and economic growth. The studies have confirmed that the economic growth, in a nation, is positively impacted by the stock market development.</p> <p>As a developing country, Morocco is looking for a development model that will allow it to ensure a durable economic growth.</p> <p>This paper seeks to examine the link between stock market development and economic growth</p> <p>In Morocco, using time-series data sourced from the Central Bank of Morocco covering the period of 2008-2021, with a quarterly frequency, and using the vector autoregressive (VAR) approach to estimate the results.</p> <p>The capitalization and liquidity are used as stock market indicators. The results of the study show that the coefficient of the capitalization has a positive sign but for the liquidity it has a negative sign. In the other hand, for the control variables, the coefficient of the inflation rate has a positive sign but that of the real effective exchange has a negative sign.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>E44</p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T09:17:35+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rachida EL YAMANI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/642 The influence marketing in favour of social commerce: Case of Morocco 2022-06-06T12:03:21+00:00 Sara FOUAD Sarafouad.cpge@gmail.com Bouchra BENNANI Sarafouad.cpge@gmail.com <p>The inexorable expansion of social networks has changed the way the Internet is used and has redefined social relations between individuals but also with the brands and companies. Indeed, they have given rise to a new form of e-commerce called social commerce, which is now considered as a powerful lever for businesses. In fact, the practice of social commerce by companies requires the consideration of different forms of communication suitable for social networks. In particular, influence marketing, a new form of communication based on recommendations from influential people.&nbsp; Hence the objective of this paper, which sheds light on the crucial role of influence marketing in social commerce. This paper is an exploratory study conducted through a qualitative research method based on semi-structured interviews with representatives of four Moroccan brands practicing social commerce. Particular importance was attributed to the diversity of the respondents' categories according to their field of activity. But also, to the diversity of their collaborators, i.e., the different types of influencers that are the object of their communication strategies on social networks. In fine, the thematic analysis of this study revealed several findings that advocate and confirm the role of influence marketing in the success of social commerce in a Moroccan context. The main results of our study express the importance of taking into consideration social networks in commerce, it remains an essential tool for the success of each brand today. Thus, the role of influencers, which is nowadays considered as a communication strategy in itself.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification :&nbsp; </strong>M31</p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T09:27:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sara FOUAD, Bouchra BENNANI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/644 The determinants of labor market integration of migrants and refugees in Morocco: Case of the AMUDDU project 2022-06-06T12:03:21+00:00 Younes BOUTAKHNIFT younesboutakhnift@gmail.com Anas CHEKROUNI a.chekrouni@edu.umi.ac.ma Philip VERWIMP zakaria.ezzarzari@gmail.com Mohammed BENCHEKARA benchekara@hotmail.com <p>The aim of this paper is to reveal the determinants involved in the professional integration of migrants and refugees in Morocco. To achieve this, we used a database collected by ENABEL and AMAPPE, from a questionnaire administered in 2019 and 2022. This survey identified 697 hosted and informed migrants and refugees. Its objective was to ask migrants and refugees who are beneficiaries of the AMUDDU project about their employment status.</p> <p>We use a logistic regression model to identify the probability that a migrant is inserted. The dependent variable in our analysis is the job insertion which takes two variables (1 if inserted and 0 otherwise). The independent (predictive) variables are: Age, length of stay, gender, language level, degree, work experience, scholarship and number of children.</p> <p>Our logistic regression results show that the probability of entering the labor market is determined by the length of stay in Morocco, the level of proficiency in Arabic and French, professional experience and degree. However, age, gender, scholarship, and number of children do not seem to have a significant influence on labor market integration.&nbsp;</p> <p>Despite the relevance of the results obtained. This is a first step in the analysis of the explanatory determinants of the problem of professional integration in Morocco. Thus, an impact study based on the counterfactual situation can represent a logical continuation of our wok.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>O15, J61</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T09:32:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Younes BOUTAKHNIFT, Anas CHEKROUNI, Philip VERWIMP, Mohammed BENCHEKARA https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/647 Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance 2022-06-06T12:03:22+00:00 Salma EL IMRANI s.elimrani@uae.ac.ma Ahmed TAQI ataqi@uae.ac.ma <p>Recently, attention has focused more on the importance of the social component and its contribution to the development of corporates, especially on their economic and financial aspects, where the parties concerned see that social responsibility is pf particular importance which will improve profitability and profitability of their businesses without endangering society. In this regard, this study aims to examine the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Financial Performance (FP) which have become two closely related concepts from an academic and practical point of view even if they appear different from each other. To measure the CSR variables, we used the (ESG) criteria, while to measure the CFP, we used the Return On Assets (ROA) financial ratio. These chosen variables have been widely used in previous studies and have confirmed their potential influences on the financial performance of companies. The study is conducted using a quantitative methodology based on the analysis of extra-financial data (ESG) collected from the “Covalence” database and financial data from 154 multinationals. However, the descriptive statistics and the analyzes of the statistical modeling by multiple regression, were carried out using the scientific environment of the development Spyder 4.2.5 for Python.</p> <p>The results of statistical tests carried out to test the validity of the sub-hypotheses putted to confirm the central hypothesis (H1) showed that Social (S) and Governance (G) practices have a positive and statistically significant impact on CSR. Conversely, they reported the absence of a statistically significant linear or complex relationship between Environmental (E) practices and CFP. As a result, the study revealed the existence of a positive and statistically significant relationship between CSR and financial performance, namely that social is profitable.</p> <p>The conclusions drawn from this empirical study are proof that social policies increase financial performance. As a result, the study recommends encouraging companies to double the effort and integrate the social component into their short-term and long-term strategies for the financial benefit it generates for the economic entity.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>G30, M14, O16</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T09:40:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Salma EL IMRANI, Ahmed TAQI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/625 Growth intention of Moroccan SMEs in a crisis context 2022-06-06T23:13:21+00:00 Kenza MORABBI kenza.morabbi@ced.uca.ma Said OUHADI Ouhadisaid@yahoo.fr <p>SMEs are the cornerstone of the Moroccan economy. They recruit, invest, and contribute strongly to economic growth. Indeed, the latter remains dependent on their growth and development. Nevertheless, contrary to what many people think, growth is not a common goal among SME managers. Some want to grow their businesses, while others are satisfied with the status quo. This research develops an in-depth analysis of the growth intention of Moroccan SMEs, while taking into account the crisis context in which it was conducted. In this sense, the study has two objectives: to understand through the eyes and perceptions of managers the impact that the crisis may have had on their business, and to understand their intention to grow during this context. After a literature review highlighting the role of the manager within the SME, and the results of the work on growth intention, we conducted, through a qualitative approach, four interviews with four Moroccan SME managers, located in Marrakech. The interviews, conducted between month 3 and month 4 of 2022, were transcribed according to the sociological method, and then analyzed by hand, through a horizontal and vertical analysis. Following this analysis, the results generated demonstrate that growth is a polyphonic concept, and that the intention to grow is protean: four modalities of the intention to grow have emerged. Strong growth intention, moderate growth intention, pending growth intention, and no growth intention. The results of this research contribute to the understanding of the perceptions of SME managers, which in return, would allow public authorities to put in place more adapted and therefore more useful support mechanisms in order to encourage them to grow.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>G01, L25, L1</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T09:45:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kenza MORABBI, Ouhadi SAID https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/636 Promoting Green Entrepreneurship in Morocco as a Roadmap to Sustainable Development: A literature Review 2022-06-06T12:03:23+00:00 Mohamed ELMOUKHTAR elmoukhtarmohamed@gmail.com Fatima TOUHAMI f.touhami@gmail.com Othmane TAOUABIT o.taouabit@gmail.com Imane MOUHTAT Mouhtat.iman@gmail.com <p>Over the last twenty years, and since the United Nations World Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), the theme of the green economy and its impact on sustainable development has prompted many researchers to reflect in depth on the global movement towards a more equitable and sustainable economy, towards a "green economy", generating a total commitment across the world. Morocco, like several other governments, has often given great importance in its stimulus programmes to green entrepreneurs, through the granting of research credits to stimulate innovation, or loan guarantees, or tax breaks or incentives for business creation.</p> <p>The choice of this theme fits perfectly into the current context of our country, marked by the debates on the new development model. Today, Morocco is charting its path towards development by putting in place very ambitious strategies characterised by the adoption of new educational, social, economic and financial programmes. Green entrepreneurship is therefore an asset to accompany the country in its economic, technological and environmental transition. It constitutes a new economic and development dynamic in full evolution in a context of awareness of global environmental issues.</p> <p>Can we therefore consider the promotion of green entrepreneurship in Morocco as an asset for a sustainable territorial development of the country?&nbsp; The aim of our study is to analyse the contribution of green entrepreneurship to the development of the country using the SWOT analytical tool and to draw some conclusions and recommendations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>Q56</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research</p> 2022-06-06T09:51:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mohamed ELMOUKHTAR, Fatima TOUHAMI, Othmane TAOUABIT, Imane MOUHTAT https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/595 Capital humain, développement des compétences et investissements directs étrangers au Maroc : un essai d'analyse empirique 2022-06-06T12:03:23+00:00 Abderrazak EL HIRI elhiriabderrazak@gmail.com Maryem EL ACHABI maryamelachabi@gmail.com <p>Many variables have been examined in the literature as determinants of FDI, in this work the focus is on the importance of human capital as an explanatory variable that further drains foreign direct investment to our country.&nbsp; The relationship between FDI and human capital has become a subject of increasing interest. The role of human capital in attracting foreign direct investment has been widely identified in the literature. Several theoretical and empirical works have emphasized the importance of human capital as a powerful factor in attracting FDI. The aim of this work is to verify whether the presence of a high level of human capital that incorporates skills, technologies, creativity, innovation and professional competences constitutes a powerful determinant of the attractiveness of Morocco in terms of foreign direct investment. To do this, we will conduct an econometric study based on time series by the error correction model (ECM) over the period 1990-2019. The empirical results show that all measures of human capital have a significant influence on FDI, as the number of graduates of institutions and higher education and the number of graduates of vocational training positively affect the inflow of FDI in Morocco. This means that an increase in the number of graduates encourages the establishment of foreign companies. On the other hand, graduates from universities in the normal cycle and graduates from master's and doctoral programs have a negative impact on FDI inflows. On the other hand, GDP is found to be significant and negatively affects the inflow of FDI to Morocco, a surprising result, as it is contrary to the one established in numerous studies that stipulate that GDP represents a primordial element for attracting FDI.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification&nbsp;:</strong> C51, E22, F21, J24,</p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T09:57:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abderrazak EL HIRI, Maryem EL ACHABI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/635 Exploration of virtual content on the brand image of leather goods and the tourist destination of the city Marrakech: A netnographic study 2022-06-06T12:03:24+00:00 Ichraq HAMMOU ichraq.hammou@gmail.com Sabrine ABOUDOU sabi.aboudou@gmail.com Youssef MAKLOUL ichraq.hammou@gmail.com <p>Netnography represents a potentially appropriate method of investigation for qualitative marketing studies. The main objective of our netnographic study is to explore the virtual content generated on the brand image of the tourist destination and that of the leather goods of the city of Marrakech. The use of this method has been apprehended because of its convenience as well as its relevance to marketing studies in virtual consumer communities. During this study, we have monitored, observed and collected the different opinions and comments that are directly related to our research areas, namely the brand image of leather goods and the brand image of the Marrakech destination.&nbsp; Our empirical study reveals a substantial added value for institutions and researchers. The results of our research provide a better understanding of consumer perceptions of virtual communities. They also concluded that communication through social media is of great importance, especially in the promotion of products and territories. This could contribute to the improvement of the policy of promoting the image of products and tourist destinations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification:</strong> M30</p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> Empirical Research</p> 2022-06-06T10:03:46+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ichraq HAMMOU, Sabrine ABOUDOU, Youssef MAKLOUL https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/638 The co-creation of public value within the preparatory classes for CPGE in Morocco: an ecosystem to capitalize on 2022-06-06T12:03:24+00:00 Basma EL GUEBDA belguebda@gmail.com Abdelwahad GOURCH belguebda@gmail.com <p>Management) is the ultimate solution. This new management approach is based on several fundamental principles that essentially aim to capitalize on the public value created within public organizations. In contrast, the old management approach considered for a long time that the creation of public value was linear and depended on few actors. Under NMP, however, this process is seen as part of an ecosystem characterized by the co-creation of public value by and for different stakeholders. As one of the most important public organizations in Morocco, public education institutions are at the center of several actors' concerns, as they represent a locomotive for development and a vector for large-scale value creation. This article focuses on the co-creation of public value within the CPGE in Morocco. We try to shed light on a rather delicate but very important stakeholder who also happens to be the cornerstone of this ecosystem, namely the students. Thanks to the data collected via the questionnaire survey administered to these students, it was possible to conduct an exploratory study of our latent variable, namely, the creation of public value. In the end, the results of the descriptive statistics analysis as well as the principal component analysis revealed a rich and mixed picture. Students are certainly a driving stakeholder in the creation of public value within CPGE. However, given the challenges and weaknesses outlined in this article, this remains a major area for structural redesign in order to elevate and capitalize on public value creation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL&nbsp;classification :</strong> C40,&nbsp; C42, I21</p> <p><strong>Paper type&nbsp;:</strong> Applied research</p> 2022-06-06T10:08:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Basma EL GUEBDA, Abdelwahad GOURCH https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/639 The associative social innovation as a vector for sustainable territorial development: the case of five non-governmental organisations in the Greater Maghreb 2022-06-06T12:03:25+00:00 Sara AMSASSAN amsassan.sara@gmail.com Jamila AYEGOU Jamila.ayegou@gmail.com <p>Many solutions are proposed to improve people's living conditions, and social innovation (SI) often appears as an attractive option. This new axis of innovation is particularly relevant in the field of sustainable territorial development (STD), which can be approached as a collective action and a coordination of individual actions, whose characteristics are set by the framework of a world that will change and evolve in an unpredictable way as the actions are implemented, and whose main objectives are the protection of the environment, the development of economic activities and the improvement of local social living conditions. This observation leads to a new research perspective. Indeed, research on this topic has been largely limited to social innovation in the public sector. On the other hand, it would be judicious to show interest towards the associative actor, because of its proximity to the citizens and its local efficiency, and to combine its contributions to the concept of social innovation, in order to take into account all the problems inherent to the improvement of the living conditions of the populations and the sustainable development of the territories. Thus, this article aims to show how social innovation can contribute to sustainable territorial development.</p> <p>Based on a qualitative study, our investigation presents the results of a multi-case study whose data collection was enabled by semi-structured interviews with five non-governmental organisations (NGOs), each operating in one of the countries of the Greater Maghreb&nbsp;: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania. This article shows that social innovation is structured in networks, within which social actors share representations, distribute responsibilities or roles, and establish rules or standards, allowing the circulation of information, the distribution of resources and the decision-making process in order to satisfy social needs and expectations not covered by the market and/or the State, in favour of vulnerable populations, and also to contribute sustainably to the development of the territories in which it is implemented.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification :&nbsp; </strong>O35</p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T10:15:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sara AMSASSAN, Jamila AYEGOU https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/631 Recruitment: What Measurement Scale of the Employer’s External Brand for Moroccan Talent 2022-06-06T12:03:25+00:00 Noura ETTAHIR ettahirnoura@gmail.com Keltoum RAHALI rahkel@hotmail.fr Abdellatif ELOUALI Abdellatif.elouali@gmail.com Mustapha KOUZER kouzer.m@gmail.com <p>Since&nbsp;its creation in 1990 by Simon Barrow, the employer brand has triggered great interest among researchers and practitioners (Chhabra &amp; Mishra, 2008, Charbonnier-Voirin et al, 2014, Viot et al, 2014)&nbsp;due to&nbsp;the difficulties of attracting and retaining potential and existing employees. In Morocco, research work dealing with attracting and retaining employees is&nbsp;uncommon, especially with regard to the employer’s brand.</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to determine how the Moroccan university students perceive the employer brand, and its importance in the choice of the employer. To achieve this objective, a qualitative exploratory survey&nbsp;was carried out among the students of the professional license of the High School of Technology Salé (ESTS),&nbsp;and&nbsp;then a quantitative study has been&nbsp;conducted&nbsp;to define the dimensions of the employer brand retained by our sample. (Which consists of two hundred and seventy students (270 students). The&nbsp;reviewing&nbsp;of the internal validity and stability of the factor structure promise good psychometric qualities to the tool.</p> <p>The results of the quantitative survey show that the employer brand perceived by potential employees is a multidimensional construct. In addition, the measurement scale proposed in this research paper presents a rich and coherent set of five dimensions which offer the possibility of grouping and synthesizing the contributions of the literature devoted to the employer brand. And finally, the employer brand, according to the authors, remains an “untapped source of value” with its various stakeholders, namely consumers, investors, existing employees and even potential candidates.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>M00, M31</p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Empircal Research</p> 2022-06-06T10:20:21+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Noura ETTAHIR, Keltoum RAHALI, Abdellatif ELOUALI, Mustapha KOUZER https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/649 Impact of operational risk management on the performance of Moroccan credit institutions 2022-06-06T12:03:25+00:00 Imane ALLAM imane.allam8@gmail.com Mustapha ACHIBANE achibm@hotmail.com Rachid KRAMI rachid.krami@encgk.ma <p>While searching for sustainable value creation, banking entities have to conceive and implement performance-driven strategies. Therefore, banks have to make a double effort in seeking performance and risk managing. This work is done upstream of the managerial process, on an ongoing basis and downstream of this process. Upstream, risk management is a major determinant of operational strategies. On an ongoing basis, risk management is a permanent work that aims to indentify and correct gaps. Finally, and downstream, risk management is regarded as a performance in itself as to respecting the prudential norms and regulation. Therefore, there’s a tight dependence between performance and risk management.</p> <p>In order to analyse this relationship, we applied the econometrical model of panel ARDL. At the end of this work, it has been demonstrated that there is a dependency relationship between these two variables. This latter is mainely about operational risk and performance, hence the importance for banking entities to combine between the prudential approach and the operational one while designing their strategies.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification&nbsp;: </strong>G21, G28, G32</p> <p><strong>Paper Type&nbsp;: </strong>Empirical Research</p> 2022-06-06T10:27:18+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Imane ALLAM, Mustapha ACHIBANE, Rachid KRAMI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/627 The Integration of Information and Communication Technologies in Primary and Secondary Education in Morocco: Case of the Meknes Prefecture 2022-06-06T12:03:26+00:00 Salah Eddine El Kartouti kartouti.salah.eddine@gmail.com Sarah JUIDETTE sarah.juidette@gmail.com <p>The information and communication technologies constitute today an inescapable lever in all the fields and sectors, in this sense developing the educational system and improving the modes of learning is a reality that is imposed on all the countries. Based on this observation, our country is part, hence the importance of developing the necessary measures to strengthen and develop a national education system inclusive to all, innovative, and quality, especially in a world that is constantly and profoundly changing, among these measures is the effective integration of information technology and communication for education. These technologies have constituted for several years an essential basic element to promote, improve and develop the teaching practices on all levels. Thus, this paper has as its object the study of the integration of information and communication technologies for primary and secondary education at the level of the Meknes Prefecture. To do this, this work is based on two tools; the first is a database that includes all students of the primary and secondary cycle for the school year 2018-2019, and the second is a questionnaire for school principals of the primary and secondary cycle, which has allowed the constitution of a sample of 39 schools. The results of this study have shown the degree of integration of ICT and its importance, especially in the fight against dropout, repetition, and improvement of academic achievement. However, this does not prevent the existence of difficulties and obstacles that must be taken into account and resolved, to achieve the objectives set and therefore ensure the transition to modern digital education, especially for children of compulsory school age.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEF Classification</strong>: I21, O33, M53</p> <p><strong>Paper type:</strong> Applied research</p> 2022-06-06T10:33:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Salah Eddine El Kartouti, Sarah JUIDETTE https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/640 The financial impact of the covid-19 health crisis on health care institutions: Case of the Mohammed VI University-Hospital Center of Oujda 2022-06-06T12:03:26+00:00 Abdelrhani BENTAHAR abdelrhani.bentahar@ump.ac.ma Rian BOUAZZAOUI r.bouazzaoui@ump.ac.ma <p>The field of public health represents one of the major responsibilities of the State, along with education and employment. It is indeed a strategic sector that crystallizes the notion of the social state. The Covid-19 pandemic has only confirmed the strategic and vital nature of the sector and the importance of the state's commitment to it. The Covid-19 pandemic has only confirmed the strategic and vital nature of the sector and the importance of the state's commitment to it.</p> <p>This pandemic has had serious repercussions and has caused economic and social damage to both the private and public sectors.</p> <p>Through this contribution, we seek to improve the efficiency of the financial and accounting management of health establishments in Morocco, in particular, the University Hospital Centers (CHU). To do this, we based ourselves on a comparative study of the revenues and expenses of the CHU Mohammed VI-Oujda.</p> <p>The interest of this paper is twofold. First, it sheds light on budgeting and hospital management practices, and second, it highlights the main financial consequences of the pandemic.&nbsp;</p> <p>Initial results show that the pandemic crisis has had a profound impact on the health sector. It has caused scarring effects in terms of budgetary revenues and expenditures on health care producers in Morocco. As a result, revenues have fallen significantly while expenses have risen dramatically. It will then be necessary to deduce the necessary lessons from the said crisis.</p> <p>We find it relevant for health officials to adopt anticipatory strategies, to develop capacities in this sector, to prepare scenarios to cope with such sudden health crises. In this way, they will strengthen the efficiency and improve the performance of the health sector.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : I10, M10, P46<br></strong></p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Theoretical article</p> 2022-06-06T10:45:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abdelrhani BENTAHAR, Rian BOUAZZAOUI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/646 Assessment of psychosocial risks among employees of IT management companies in Morocco 2022-06-06T12:03:27+00:00 Said BALHADJ sbalhadj@yahoo.fr Mustapha AHMIMID mustapha.ahmimid1@etu.uae.ac.ma <p>In recent years, the concept of psychosocial risks has taken on particular importance in working life. Indeed, PSRs at work have become almost synonymous with working life, and more specifically with work-related stress, and it is widely accepted that work experiences can have a negative impact on the mental health of employees.</p> <p>Psychological risks are the human pressures that arise as a result of implementing an organization's strategy, and take different forms such as anxiety, pressure, violence, mental load, miscommunication and other pressures that are transmitted differently among employees depending on their position in the company.</p> <p>Thus, mental health is an integral part of health and a state of happiness. It enables a person to achieve self-realization, overcome the normal pressures of life, engage in productive work and contribute to community life. Its degree is determined by social, psychological decisions and biological factors. In the workplace, it is associated with psychosocial risk (PSR), which can cause a variety of discomforts and negative emotions about work. The assessment of PSR in the workplace is crucial, their identification allows to take preventive measures to have a palpable impact on absenteeism, performance, productivity and health of workers and organizations.</p> <p>In this sense, the objective of this manuscript is to evaluate the psychosocial risks of employees of companies in management information systems in Morocco based on the Karasek model.</p> <p>&nbsp;This is a cross-sectional survey with data from 222 employees in the IT management professions. The respondents were informed in advance of the purpose of the survey and of the anonymity of the data collected. The respondents were women and men computer scientists of all ages, different levels of learning, different levels of experience and different socio-professional categories.</p> <p>This study gave us the opportunity to evaluate the psychosocial risks of the employees of five Moroccan companies acting in the field of IT development and marketing, as well as to detect the consequences of the non-adoption of these evaluation instruments within the said companies in their processes relating to the management of human resources, this paper was a step for us to apprehend the evolution of psychosocial risks in Morocco.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>O15</p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T10:50:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Said BALHADJ, Mustapha AHMIMID https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/476 The Impact of Climate Change on Economic Growth in Developing Countries Case of Morocco 2022-06-06T12:03:27+00:00 Abdessamad EJJIAR Abdessamad.ejjiar@gmail.com Fatima ARIB f.arib@uca.ma <p>Today, climate change is one of the major challenges that face the world, it is a considerable threat to mankind and also to its economic activities, the macro-economic impacts of climate change and low-carbon transition policies on the planet would be moderate overall a relative few hundredth of a percent of world GDP on an annual basis.</p> <p>Understanding what constitutes dangerous climate change is of critical importance for future concerted action (Schneider, 2001, 2002).</p> <p>Developing countries, such as Morocco, consider themselves to be the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In contrast to low-income countries, rich countries that have very high greenhouse gas emissions can mitigate and adapt to the impact of climate change.</p> <p>The awareness of this vulnerability was confirmed during the many years of drought that hit the country at the end of the last century and heavily affected the national economy.</p> <p>It is important to have the most recent information on this subject in order to take it into account in the vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning processes.</p> <p>In this work, we purpose a review of the literature on the impact of climate change on economic growth, particularly in Morocco. theoretical analysis of the environmental/economic analysis and the possibility of its application to the Moroccan situation</p> <p>The study finds a significant negative effect on climate change debt on economic growth in Morocco in the short-run and the long-run. It also finds the necessity of implementing an economy to have more ideas about the unknown climate/economic situation in Morocco<strong>.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>Q44, Q54</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research</p> 2022-06-06T10:55:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abdessamad EJJIAR, Fatima ARIB https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/624 Tourism destinations as Innovative clusters: an opportunity to make a destination more attractive: Case of Agadir city 2022-06-06T12:03:28+00:00 Aziz SAIR Younes.slilem@edi.uiz.ac.ma Younes SLILEM younes.slilem@gmail.com <p>The spatial expansion of tourism and the growing diversification of this activity in the world to create opportunities for countries, regions and communities to seek to bring about their development. A cluster is a progressive form of business network, which has strong business objectives focusing on improving sales and profits. It makes the exchange of information and technology possible, encouraging different ways of co-ordination and collaboration within them. Clustering is a process that enables the participants to exploit their synergies and the complementarities between their outputs, involving several benefits. (E.C., 2003). Clusters are vital for regional development increase the competitiveness, the productivity and local businesses’ critical mass.In an era where tourism is suffering from the pandemic effects, our paper highlights the role of actors networking on tourism destination attractiveness.</p> <p>Limited research has investigated on tourism clusters; this paper fills this gab by proposing an Innovative tourism cluster as a framework-providing destination with innovative opportunities and solutions to operate in an attractive tourism environment.</p> <p>Hence our main paper question: “what is the role of actors networking, as an innovative tourism cluster, one destination tourism attractiveness?” Our methodology started with a review of relevant literature on innovative tourism cluster, and yet the literature in this respect is scarce and there is a need for more research. Then a qualitative method is undertaken via interviews with different tourism actors. The empirical results validate the need to apply a new framework to develop tourism attractiveness. The paper also provides a contribution to the assessment of tourism industry clusters.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Innovative cluster, tourism, destination, attractiveness, Morocco</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>L83, Z30</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T11:05:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aziz SAIR, Younes SLILEM https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/641 Rethinking HRM in the time of coronavirus 2022-06-06T12:03:28+00:00 Nisrine ESSANOUSSI nisrine.essanoussi@gmail.com <p>This paper questions the reconsideration of corporate practices in terms of CSR, highlighting relations with internal and external stakeholders, including human resources. The COVID 19 pandemic, which we are experiencing, will forever mark the history of management, the theory of organizations and the management of human resources. It invites the HRM to get a makeover, and to take up new challenges such as teleworking, digitalization as well as health and safety at work.</p> <p>For this, it is interesting to analyze the issues related to HRM at the time of the pandemic, and to question the ability of HRDs to lead the organizational changes that the complexity and uncertainty of the economic context wants.</p> <p>We will first comeback to xenophobia and discrimination at work linked to the Covid-19 pandemic. Then, we explain why it is appropriate to rethink psychosocial risks, organizational culture and occupational health and safety in the context of COVID19. Finally, we will examine the issues related to compensation, recruitment, dismissal and digitalization.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification</strong>: M12, M14, O15.</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>: Theoretical Research.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-06T11:11:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nisrine ESSANOUSSI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/592 The Process approach’s contribution in internal auditing: An improved risk assessment for optimized processes 2022-06-06T12:03:29+00:00 Tilila TAJ tililataj@yahoo.fr <p>The traditional model deployed to ensure internal auditing mission is outdated. The internal auditing requires a new approach for the better restructuring and organizing the step to follow for this purpose. The function of internal auditing is recognized as a strong contributor to the development of governance practices across all sectors. It ensures an effective evaluation of the processes and controls within an organization. Furthermore, it provides an assurance about the compliance of the procedures with international standards, laws, regulations and strategies of the firm. As a fact, the internal audit function improves internal controls by understanding the functioning of the processes, analyzing the risks and identifying changes that must be conducted for an appropriate management action taken. The objectives are both to fill any gap in the risk management process of the firm and to optimize the operationalization of its processes.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a new audit review process based on the process approach as advocated by the ISO9000:2000. We demonstrate how the process approach used in logistics fields contributes efficiently in internal auditing from the identification of the requirements, quality characteristics and resources of the process to the definition of the deliverables. We develop a new formalism of the internal auditing approach using the technique of meta modeling. The template increases the efficiency of quality process assessment by formalizing, firstly, a guide to be followed by internal auditors to analyze the process ‘as it’, secondly, a model that design the links between the concepts, actions and resources. Therefore, the proposed formalization integrates the operational, relational and structural spaces that take into consideration all the resources, actors and outputs of a process. We recommend a mixed-method approach that combines internal auditing practices, risk assessment practices and the process approach.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: <em>M42</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research</p> 2022-06-06T11:19:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tilila TAJ https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/591 Valorization of local cultural heritage, heritage governance and tourist attractiveness: Case of the Cultural Capital Rabat 2022-06-06T12:03:29+00:00 Ahmed ERADI ahmederadi68@gmail.com Youssef MOFLIH mofyou@hotmail.com <p>Currently, the management of local cultural heritage is an issue that does not date from yesterday, the different civilizations have always focused on the enhancement of their heritage resources in order to safeguard the inherited cultures, on the one hand, and to make it a driver of development. It is in this perspective that the objective of the present paper is to analyze the relationship between valorization of local cultural heritage, local governance and tourist attractiveness of the Cultural Capital Rabat in order to show, through a qualitative study based on a questionnaire intended for the various actors who participate and contribute to the valorization of the cultural heritage of the city of Rabat. These are officials of the central administration; officials of local authorities and local populations as well as associations. The results of the approach proposed by the Churchill paradigm show that the governance and cooperation dimension is poorly taken into account in the management of the cultural heritage of the city of Rabat, with little participation by local authorities and civil society. The results show that the cultural heritage of the city of Rabat takes fairly well into account the economic dimension and tourist attractiveness.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: B23, Z10, Z13</strong></p> <p><strong>Type of Paper: Empirical Research</strong></p> 2022-06-06T11:25:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmed ERADI, Youssef MOFLIH https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/579 The Improvement of the quality service through the standardization of processes and operating methods: Case of shipping management 2022-06-06T12:03:29+00:00 Maroua BOUJEMAOUI maroua.bouj@gmail.com Mohammed RAJAA maroua.bouj@gmail.com <p>Companies are constantly seeking to optimize their resources, both material and human. In order to standardize their operation, this work approach consists of organizing the tasks in order to have some stability and the constancy of the daily operations, in order to identify the real capacity of a process. Any process is standardized, but not in accordance with all its stages.</p> <p>The standardization of processes and operating methods is therefore a guarantee of efficiency, but also of improving the management times of the various tasks, insofar as they are described therein in a clear and precise manner, as well as their operation and sequence. So that the user is perfectly oriented and guided in his work and in order to drastically reduce the risk of error.</p> <p>Moreover, with the repetition of operations of the same kind, which creates automatisms among the collaborators, and the total integration of the steps, which constitute a routine among the users, the speed of execution will inevitably increase, while remaining in the respect quality requirements.</p> <p>The migration of a traditional process through the individual management of each task is the driving objective of our article, insofar as each repetitive shipment must be subject to a standard process to optimize working time and increase the number of shipments processed by a single operator.</p> <p>We adopt a constructivist approach, where we position ourselves in the shoes of an expedition manager who aims to improve his daily life. Our study is the result of 6 months of observation in a company that operates in the automotive sector. As well as our reasoning assumes that this study will be applied in other companies, whose sectors of activity are different. So an inductive reasoning, in other words, from the particular to the general.</p> <p>After our study, and the standardization approach adopted, we can summarize that the main perceived result rhymes with better management and a significantly improved service rate. So ultimately the change in the usual methods is not intended to complicate the daily lives of operators and users contrary to what they believe, but it is a way of improving and minimizing their efforts with a removal of unnecessary tasks.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>D23 , D33, F14 <em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research.</p> 2022-06-06T11:30:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Maroua BOUJEMAOUI, Mohammed RAJAA https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/633 Analysis of Potential Production in Morocco 2022-06-06T12:03:30+00:00 Ahmed HEFNAOUI hefnaoui_Ahmed@yahoo.com Mohamed CHARFI mohamed.Charfi@ofppt.ma Idriss IAATAREN driss.eco.nomie-84@gmail.com <p>In recent years, economic developments in a number of advanced and developing countries have been marked by a decline in growth. Many studies have shown that a large part of this depreciation is explained by that of potential growth. In this respect, the development of potential growth has become one of the most important economic issues in that it affects the conduct of monetary policy and the management of public finances. The objective of this article is to propose an estimate of potential output in Morocco, based on econometric modeling of the Cobb Douglass function based on three variables: Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Capital Stock (K) and employment level (L). Using annual data covering the period from 1982 to 2019, representing a sample of 38 observations.</p> <p>The results obtained show a decrease in potential output in Morocco from 2011 onwards, mainly due to the slowdown in the rate of change of GFCF to 3.8% on average between 2011 and 2019, the declining employment rate and also the negative contribution of overall factor productivity.</p> <p>From the results of this study it would be possible to determine the output gap, that is, the gap between actual and potential output. The latter is an important variable for the conduct of monetary policy, as it is a major source of inflationary pressures in the economy.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>E00, E23, D2, D24</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T11:35:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmed HEFNAOUI, Mohamed CHARFI, Idriss IAATAREN https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/577 The concept of Social Entrepreneurship: an attempt of a consensual definition 2022-06-06T12:03:30+00:00 Rachid BOURJIM rachid.bourjim@usmba.ac.ma Mohamed M’HAMEDI mohamed.mhamdi@usmba.ac.ma <p>The Social Entrepreneurship concept continues to attract the interest of researchers, academics, institutions and research centers, state institutions, economic and social actors, given its positive contributions to both the economy and society. A mixture of definitions of this new concept has been developed over the last twenty years by many researchers, without reaching a consensus. &nbsp;Nowadays, is it possible to develop a definition of social entrepreneurship that can be used as a reference? This article aims to focus on the efforts made to conceptualise Social Entrepreneurship, and to try to model its components. Our main objective is to identify the most prominent characteristics of social entrepreneurship, in the perspective of developing a universal definition of this concept that is gaining in popularity around the world. Basing on a synthetic presentation of the approaches and historical evolution of social entrepreneurship throughout the world, its characteristics and best definitions by high-ranking authors, together with all the closest notions to social entrepreneurship, We present our conception of social entrepreneurship, based on a set of constitutive elements, which we propose as a ground for research, in order to develop a consensual definition of this concept.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>L31</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> 2022-06-06T11:38:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rachid BOURJIM, Mohamed M’HAMEDI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/645 Performance and innovation: The relationship in private companies 2022-06-06T12:03:31+00:00 Taoufik ANNI Taoufik.anni@gmail.com <p>It is obvious that management sciences are interested in the achievement of performance in all its dimensions, the latter are also interested in innovation as a strategic factor of differentiation and success of companies that know how to use it to advisedly.</p> <p>This article reviews the literature on the relationship between innovation and performance in private-sector companies. It offers a definition of the different performance indicators as well as the different forms of innovation.</p> <p>The objective of this article is to briefly describe the theoretical framework of innovation and the theoretical framework of performance within companies, and also to expose the relationship that exists between the two concepts.</p> <p>All the theoretical results show that the relationship between innovation and performance is characterized by a positive correlation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification&nbsp;:</strong> L25, O3</p> <p><strong>Paper Type&nbsp;:</strong> Theoretical Research</p> 2022-06-06T11:42:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Taoufik ANNI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/648 Marketing Practices in Higher Education: Case of the Cadi Ayyad University of Marrakech in Morocco 2022-06-06T12:03:31+00:00 Hind TAMER hindb940@gmail.com Bouchra LEBZAR bo.lebzar@gmail.com Zakaria KNIDIRI zakaria.knidiri@uca.ac.ma <p>Today, we have a new revolutionary vision of implementing a relationship marketing strategy. Increasing competition in education has forced universities to retain students, which, according to Ryals (2002), has had a good impact on the university's ability to retain them (Elliot &amp; Healy, 2001). The objective of this article is to present a review of the literature on the antecedents of student loyalty, and more precisely in higher education by proposing an explanatory model of different variables such as perceived quality of service, satisfaction, engagement and student loyalty to examine the set of relationships</p> <p>The methodology was based on a survey methodology on a sample of 84 students using a questionnaire distributed via social networks, on the likert 7-point scale using the PLS approach to analyze the results,to the value of relationship marketing and the history of student loyalty in the Moroccan context. A sample of students from the Cadi Ayyad University of Marrakech was used to conduct an exploratory study and a confirmatory study to validate all hypotheses.</p> <p>The results show that engagement is the most influencing factor, primarily because of its direct and powerful relationship with loyalty. The rest of the factors have only an indirect effect on loyalty and direct relationships in the following: QSP to satisfaction, satisfaction to engagement, as assumed and confirmed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification</strong>: M30</p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> Empirical Research</p> 2022-06-06T11:46:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hind TAMER, Bouchra LEBZAR, Zakaria KNIDIRI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/643 The role of professional training in Human Capital development 2022-06-06T12:03:31+00:00 Jalila AIT SOUDANE jalila.ait-soudane@fsjes-agdal.um5.ac.ma Fadoua OUALLAL fadoua.ouallal@um5s.net.ma Zakia NOUIRA zakia.nouira@um5s.net.ma Mounia AMAZIAN mounia_amazian@um5.ac.ma <p>The Human Capital development is seen as one of the main concerns of Moroccan highest institutions, whether in the education sector or in the private and public professional field.</p> <p>Moreover, this component represents a major axis underlying the New Development Model of Morocco. The strengthening of human capital is mandatory regarding the leading role of knowledge as a key determinant of economic growth, in the context of accelerating technological change, requiring for its appropriation of new skills and qualifications.</p> <p>Also, it is relevant to add that Morocco, as a nation, has multiple and varied assets which can be seen in its cultural diversity and in its geographical openness, as well as in its mobility, whether on the national or international level.</p> <p>As a result, in the context of this research work, we have chosen to study a targeted population representative of the professional panorama, namely government officials from all sectors (ministerial departments, public institutions, government agencies, regional delegations, etc.). The purpose of this study is, ultimately, to identify the level of impact of professional training in human capital development of employees.</p> <p>In this perspective, quantitative research was carried out by adopting the interpretivist paradigm. To do this, we sent a structured survey to government officials in order to allow us to measure the role of vocational training in their Human Capital development, but also to determine the type of human capital according to its categorization.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>M53</p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T11:51:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jalila AIT SOUDANE, Fadoua OUALLAL, Zakia NOUIRA, Mounia AMAZIAN https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/650 Mapping the risks of mergers and acquisitions: the case of the takeover of Marocaine Vie by the Societe Generale Group 2022-06-06T12:03:32+00:00 Abdelouahed BERRICHI abd.berrichi@ump.ac.ma Adil RACHDI abd.berrichi@ump.ac.ma Mohammed BAOMAR abd.berrichi@ump.ac.ma <p>Mergers and acquisitions operations continue to raise many questions about their managerial and financial efficiency. While there is undeniably an interest in this type of rapprochement, the reality of operations reveals that mergers and acquisitions are one of the most faced challenges. When they are mismanaged, they release a very large number of risks.</p> <p>Concretely, these risks can take several forms, such as those related to the “Due Diligence” process, the integration phase, lack of preparation or ignorance of the target, synergies between the two companies that may prove disappointing, etc. This is only the tip of the iceberg. The bulk of the mergers and acquisitions operation’s risks, as in the case of Marocaine Vie’s acquisition by the GSG, only appear later on, when the acquirer really discovers its target and realized that the expected synergies are not necessarily there. The way the integration process is handled seems to generate risks at all stages. Thus, this article’s objective: identifying and describing in an objective and structured way the specific risks to each stage and figuring out how the decision to deal with a certain number of risks during the first phase would lead to new risks’ appearance during the second and third stages. To do so, we will first present the context for the takeover of Marocaine Vie by the GSG. Then, we will specify the different stages that marked the post-acquisition phase, known as the integration phase. Finally, we will expose the risks inherent to each stage and deduce the overall mapping.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification</strong><strong>:</strong> G32 &amp; G34</p> <p><strong>Paper type:</strong> Theoretical research</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-06T11:58:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abdelouahed BERRICHI, Adil RACHDI, Mohammed BAOMAR https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/596 The new public management in Morocco: a vision via the schools of thought of management: Case of the public organizations of the region Tangier-Tetouan-El-Houceima 2022-06-06T12:57:13+00:00 Roumaissae AMZIL roumamzil@gmail.com Houda EL KHALLOUKI elkhallouki.houda@etu.uae.ac.ma Zouhair AL MOUHANI zouhair.almouhani@etu.uae.ac.ma Hicham ACHELHI achelhi.hicham@uae.ac.ma <p>After a series of successes in the implementation of management styles in private organizations, the concept of "new public management" was officially introduced in the 1980s. Its main objective is to modernize the style of conduct and management of public administrations and to transpose the key success factors from the private sector and apply them to the public sector.</p> <p>Indeed, the implementation of management styles in public organizations still raises a number of doubts and questions about their ability to improve public performance.</p> <p>Morocco is one of the countries that have applied restoration policies over the past years, with the objective of improving the performance and management of the public sector and defining a mode of governance that leads to the creation of performance and the concretization of the demands of Moroccan citizens.&nbsp;</p> <p>This work will be focused on the Moroccan public sector, in order to put a focus on the degree of insertion and application of management within the different Moroccan public organizations of different economic and social spheres.</p> <p>Therefore, our present paper aims to have a vision of the press on the managerial aspects of the public sector, it is in this sense that our problematic will crystallize.</p> <p>To do this, this research highlights the need to build an in-depth theoretical study on the authors' view in this context, as well as a practical study that targeted eight Moroccan public organizations whose aim is to highlight the difficulties of management styles that the Moroccan public sector suffers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>H11</p> <p><strong>Paper type :&nbsp; </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T12:53:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Roumaissae AMZIL, Houda EL KHALLOUKI, Zouhair AL MOUHANI, Hicham ACHELHI https://ijafame.org/index.php/ijafame/article/view/652 The Effectiveness of E-government: A Key Prerequisite for a Good Governance 2022-06-06T23:00:01+00:00 Salah JADDA sjadda@gmail.com Hafid BARKA hafid.barka@gmail.com Nawfal ACHA nawfal.acha@gmail.com <p>Digital technologies have spread rapidly in all countries and in many cases have helped to stimulate growth, expand opportunities and offer new services. Nowadays, the use of digital equipments is necessary both professionally and personally. E-government (e-Gov) has enormous potential to improve the life of citizens and the functioning of businesses. One of the objectives of the Moroccan strategy for the information society launched in 2009 called “Maroc Numeric 2013” is to bring public organizations closer to the needs of citizens and businesses. In this paper, we ask why the digital transformation is so slow and e-Gov sites are not as numerous? We also ask whether e-Gov is necessary to achieve the goals of good governance. A literature review consolidated by a qualitative study, shows that digital projects and specifically e-Government projects have a decisive role in the quality of governance and are necessary to promote human development thanks to their socio-economic impacts. Thus, decision-makers are led to continue the digital transformation initiated in 2009 while adopting a good IT governance approach which is the guarantee of the success of digital projects.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>M15, O38</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> 2022-06-06T22:55:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Salah JADDA, Hafid BARKA, Nawfal ACHA