International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics <p>IJAFAME is a bi-monthly (one issue every two months) peer-reviewed scientific journal (Blind peer review), dedicated to research in finance, accounting, auditing, management and economics. Its objective is to promote research in economics and management while publishing original articles or articles adapted to a given context. It also provides a space for exchange between professionals and academics in order to find new research ideas and encourages theoretical and practical reflections developed according to different paradigms (positivist, constructivist, interpretativist, etc.).</p> <p>Paper's are published in english or frensh</p> en-US International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics 2658-8455 <div align="justify"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> Alternative financing for informal sector microenterprises: an examination of explanatory factors <p>In this article, the authors examine the importance of sociocultural and relational factors in accessing alternative finance for small businesses (VSEs) in the informal sector. The methodological approach adopted is as follows: the quantitative approach conducted with 690 promoters of VSEs in Cameroon, especially in the cities of Douala-Yaoundé-Bafoussam, we used the SPSS software version 20.0 or in turn we carried out PCAs for the reduction of our items and finally multiple regressions for the verification of our research; well as mobilized theories&nbsp; such as social capital, social embeddedness and hierarchical financing, corroborate&nbsp; with the results of the study which&nbsp; highlight the close relationship between informal and formal donors with&nbsp; the owners of VSEs, which is based on relational proximity. This link favours financing methods such as mutual aid, donations, tontine and family support, characterized by greater tolerance towards repayment delays and increased solidarity. The social and cultural aspect of credit transactions is seen as beneficial, less costly and conducive to maintaining bonds of solidarity. In view of these results, the authors recommend that promoters-managers of MSMEs develop long-term close relationships with informal donors, establish a strong relational network and promote frequent exchanges of proactive information in order to facilitate access to informal financing and emphasize the value of intangible resources such as reputation, In short, this study highlights the importance of socio-cultural and&nbsp; relational factors in the access to alternative financing of&nbsp; VSEs, highlights the benefits of social ties and solidarity in these financial relationships, and offers practical recommendations to strengthen local relationships and facilitate access to alternative sources of financing&nbsp;&nbsp; for VSEs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sociocultural and relational factors, Alternative financing, VSEs, Cameroon.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>&nbsp;: G41</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>: Empirical Research</p> Landry TIBI La belle YAMB Martine Richard TUEGNO MATAWO FOKOU Roberson NDOUNBISSI Copyright (c) 2024 Landry TIBI, La belle YAMB Martine, Richard Junior TUEGNO MATAWO FOKOU, Roberson NDOUNBISSI 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 5 2 1 23 10.5281/zenodo.10634367 Communication in the supply chain: a systematic review of key impactful elements <p>Communication emerges as a crucial pillar within the supply chain, assuming critical importance in the competitive and dynamic context of business. Faced with globalization, rapidly evolving customer preferences, and constant technological advancements, communication asserts itself as a determining factor for the success of businesses. The literature has frequently emphasized that communication, coupled with the development of strong relationships among supply chain actors, serves as an effective means to overcome obstacles in supply chain implementation. The objective of this article is to explore the importance of communication in the context of the supply chain and to thoroughly analyze the factors that facilitate or hinder communication within the supply chain through a systematic literature review using the PRISMA method. The study examines 40 relevant articles to identify and classify 18 distinct elements grouped into four categories: relational, intra-organizational, inter-organizational, and environmental. These findings provide significant insights for both researchers and practitioners, shedding light on key elements that influence communication within the supply chain. Furthermore, these conclusions pave the way for more in-depth future research on the complex dynamics of communication in this context, offering opportunities for substantial advancement and improvement for businesses operating within the supply chain.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Communication, supply chain, performance, systematic review.</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>D83</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research</p> Sara TALBI Sofia ACHOUR Badra ABKARY Copyright (c) 2024 Sara TALBI, Sofia ACHOUR, Badra ABKARY 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 5 2 24 42 10.5281/zenodo.10634542 The theoretical study of the impact of financial and non-financial variables on credit granting <p>Access to credit is crucial for individuals, businesses and the economy as a whole. Granting bank credit is an important decision for banks, as it exposes the financial institution to the risk of loss. Banks must therefore grant credit prudently, taking into account a variety of factors, including financial and non-financial variables. This study explores the collective influence of both financial and non-financial variables in the context of credit granting. In the face of changing economic dynamics, the aim is to assess how traditional variables, such as financial ratios, interact with non-financial factors, such as a company’s management and reputation. The interest lies in the creation of more accurate credit scoring models, thereby optimizing credit portfolio management. The complexity of this interaction poses a central problem, with the challenge of selecting relevant variables and creating adaptive models. This research provides a significant contribution to the literature on credit risk assessment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Risk, Credit, Financial Variables, Non-Financial Variables, Prediction</p> <p><strong>JEL Code :</strong> C01, C32, E50, G01, G15</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research</p> Ahmed OULD MOHAMED MOCTAR Aziz DOUARI Copyright (c) 2024 Ahmed OULD MOHAMED MOCTAR, Aziz DOUARI 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 5 2 43 65 10.5281/zenodo.10635504 Theoretical analysis of the effect of complaint management on customer loyalty: proposal for a conceptual model <p>Customers often react strongly to service failures, so it's essential that an organization's recovery efforts are equally strong and effective. In this research, the aim is to study the effectiveness of complaints management according to the elements of justice (distributive, procedural and interactional) to achieve customer loyalty. The literature review revealed three approaches. The first is behaviourist, defining and measuring loyalty in terms of simple, repeated purchasing behaviour (Franck, 1967; McConnell, 1968). The second, cognitivist (attitudinal), places greater emphasis on the attitudinal dimensions of loyalty (Day, 1969; Labarbera and Marzusky, 1983). These two approaches have been brought together in a third strand of literature, which considers the concept to be dual: both attitudinal and behavioral, and is part of a composite approach (Jacoby and Kyner, 1973; Dick and Basu, 1994). After presenting a review of the conceptual literature in this field, we propose a research model considering the impact of dissatisfaction following a service incident on satisfaction with complaint management, and then this satisfaction on loyalty.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Dissatisfaction, complaint management, satisfaction, distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice, loyalty.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>&nbsp;: M31, M39 &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong> : Theoretical Research</p> Merieme BENGRICH Sara ALOUANE Copyright (c) 2024 Merieme BENGRICH, Sara ALOUANE 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 5 2 66 85 10.5281/zenodo.10636882 The dynamics of the establishment of Multinational Firms in Morocco: new geopolitical and geoeconomic factors <p>Today we see that geopolitical and geoeconomic factors play an important role in the location choices of multinational firms in Morocco in a globalized context. Political stability, strategic alliances, and strategic positioning play a fundamental role in determining the establishment strategies of these firms in Morocco.</p> <p>Over the past decades, Morocco has emerged as a preferred destination for foreign investments, attracting many multinational corporations across various economic sectors. This trend is part of a global context of reconfiguring economic and political relationships, where geopolitical and geo-economic factors increasingly influence the strategic choices of companies.</p> <p>In this perspective, our article aims to explore the complex mechanisms that underlie the decisions of multinational corporations to establish a presence in Morocco, with a particular emphasis on geopolitical and geo-economic influences. We will seek to understand how regional and global dynamics, diplomatic relations, trade agreements, and local economic characteristics interact to shape the strategic choices of companies seeking new markets and profitable partnerships.</p> <p>This study aims to explain the role of geopolitical and geoeconomic factors in the choice of multinational firms in Morocco as a destination for their establishment. In this sense, how do geopolitical and geoeconomic factors determine the implementation strategies of multinational firms in Morocco?</p> <p>To answer this question, we carried out a qualitative study with semi-directive interviews with 10 experts in geopolitics and geoeconomics and 12 business leaders operating in Morocco. Through a content analysis, our result shows the importance of geopolitical and geoeconomic factors in the location choices of multinational firms in Morocco. These firms seem to be attracted by the country's strategic geopolitical position, political stability, international alliances and economic advantages</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Multinational Firms; geopolitics; geoeconomics; Morocco, globalization.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL: </strong>F23</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>: Empirical Research</p> Mostafa EL-KHANCHOUFI Anouar AMMI Omar OUHEJJOU Copyright (c) 2024 Mostafa EL-KHANCHOUFI, Anouar AMMI, Omar OUHEJJOU 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 5 2 86 104 10.5281/zenodo.10636973 Digitalization of banking services: Achievements and Constraints <p>In the present era, the growing rise of digitalization in banking services proves particularly relevant due to the numerous advantages it provides, both for clients and financial institutions. Nevertheless, this evolution also raises concerns inherent to the risks associated with digitalization. The aim of this conceptual study is to thoroughly explore the specific risks associated with the digitalization of banking services. This article highlights the risks associated with the digitalization of banking services. It notably underscores the increased vulnerability to cyber threats such as hacking, phishing, and identity theft, due to the migration of financial transactions to online platforms. Furthermore, the growing reliance on digital systems exposes banks and their clients to risks of system failures or technical issues, which could disrupt services and cause financial losses. Additionally, it emphasizes the risk of exclusion for certain population segments that may be less familiar with or have limited access to digital technologies, thereby exacerbating the digital divide. Finally, the article addresses concerns related to data privacy, as banks collect and analyze large amounts of customer information, raising concerns about its usage and protection. Moreover, in the presence of digitalization, financial risks such as credit risk, market risk, and operational risk can become more significant. The speed of transactions and the increasing complexity of computer systems increase the likelihood of errors or technical failures, which can result in significant financial losses for banking institutions. Additionally, process automation can sometimes lead to ineffective decision-making or flaws in control systems, thereby increasing operational risk. Consequently, rigorous risk management is essential to mitigate the negative impacts of digitalization on the financial stability and security of banking institutions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Digitization; Risks; Services; Banking sector</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>: G21</p> <p><strong>Paper type:</strong> Theoretical Research</p> Younes ACHEMRAH Abdelilah JEBBARI Oussama SOUAADA Copyright (c) 2024 Younes ACHEMRAH, Abdelilah JEBBARI, Oussama SOUAADA 2024-02-11 2024-02-11 5 2 105 121 10.5281/zenodo.10646538 Study of the purchase intention of organic infant food products: survey of Moroccan parents <p>Feeding is an important event in the lives of infants and young children. It represents the focus of attention for parents and other caregivers, as well as a source of social interaction through verbal and non-verbal communication. The eating experience provides not only nutritional value but also learning opportunities. It affects children's growth and physical health, as well as their psychosocial and emotional development. This leads to an understanding of why parents are willing to pay more to feed their children organic produce.</p> <p>To study parents' intention to buy organic food for their children, we conducted a survey of 402 peoples to analyze their purchasing behavior and the main determinants of choice for organically prepared baby food products.</p> <p>The main results of the study highlighted the essential roles of motivation, accessibility, knowledge, and previous behavior in parents' intention to buy organic baby food for their babies. However, the main limitation that needs to be taken into account is that the study was carried out on a specific population, which hinders the generalization of its conclusions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Organic baby food, purchase intention, healthy food, young parents.</p> <p><strong>JEL code:</strong> Q13, Q18, M30, M31</p> <p><strong>Paper Type:</strong> Empirical Research</p> Hind MOUSSAID Achraf KHAROUAA Copyright (c) 2024 Hind MOUSSAID, Achraf KHAROUAA 2024-02-11 2024-02-11 5 2 122 135 10.5281/zenodo.10646648 The collective intelligence of work teams: support for developing the organization’s capacity for innovation <p>The acceleration of environmental changes and the change in consumer habits require the organization to have an increased capacity to develop innovations. This capacity is essential insofar as it allows it to maintain its market share and continue to offer quality products and services that perfectly meet customer requirements. Developing the capacity for innovation is not an easy thing: it is based on the creation, acquisition and recombination of several resources. In this context, collective intelligence is an effective collective solution for mobilizing, recombining and developing a team's resources. It is a collaborative capacity to produce exceptional results far beyond those that the organization can achieve if it organizes work individually. It reflects the transition from a culture based on individuality to one based on collaboration, interdependence, exchange and sharing of resources. As a result, collective intelligence is a source of innovative ideas, which stimulates the creativity of the team based on a diversity of knowledge, skills and perspectives of each other. The objective of this manuscript is to explain the role that the collective intelligence of work teams can play in the development of the organization's capacity for innovation. To do this, a conceptual precision of our basic concepts is necessary before placing our problem in the chosen theoretical current, namely: the resource-based perspective (RBV) and its subsequent developments, in particular the knowledge-based perspective, on skills and dynamic capabilities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords : </strong>collective intelligence, innovation, collaboration, work team</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong>O3</p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Theoretical Research<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Hicham EZZAIDI El Mostafa FTOUH Copyright (c) 2024 Hicham EZZAIDI, El Mostafa FTOUH 2024-02-11 2024-02-11 5 2 136 148 10.5281/zenodo.10646716 Literature review on the existing link between human resource management and social performance <p>In the face of changes in the economic landscape, companies are confronted with increasingly fierce competition. To thrive in this situation, decision-makers are advised to enhance their adaptability and flexibility.</p> <p>A company deemed as high-performing is evaluated not only in terms of productivity but also based on the quality of its employees. Each decision made directly impacts human resources, which represent a crucial strategic asset for value creation. The quality of its management is gradually emerging as a decisive element of organizational performance. This is no longer measured solely by productivity, but also by the level of employee job satisfaction and their social well-being.</p> <p>The link between human resource management and social performance is a matter of vital importance, as this relationship forms the core of our research, aiming to establish the theoretical connection between the two concepts after presenting each concept separately while adopting a conceptual methodology.</p> <p>The findings of this research are relevant from both a theoretical and practical perspective, facilitating decision-making for policymakers to better understand how effective human resource management can generate social performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> human resource management, social performance.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL :</strong> O15</p> <p><strong>Paper Type :</strong> : Theoretical Research</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohamed KARIM Rajaa FAIK Copyright (c) 2024 Mohamed KARIM, Rajaa FAIK 2024-02-11 2024-02-11 5 2 149 160 10.5281/zenodo.10646780 Market reaction to international listing: Case of African companies listed on the London Stock Exchange <p>This article examines the market reaction to dual stock listing. Little attention is given to African companies listed on international markets, which are the subject of our study. The sample consists of only twelve (12) African companies from five different countries that are simultaneously listed on their home stock exchanges and the "main market" of the London Stock Exchange. Using an event study methodology, which involves estimating the so-called "normal" profitability and abnormal profitability, the study assesses a market model for each company in our sample using daily returns and a market-capitalization-weighted index for each country's market. The market model parameters are initially estimated for the period before the event, ranging from -240 days to -30 days with an estimation window of 61 days (-30 days, +30 days) around the IPO date, including the event day (j0). The effect of foreign listing on the home market remains positive and significant, explained by a legal framework offering better protection and a broader shareholder base. Simultaneously, foreign listing is considered a positive initiative for the selected companies and their shareholders overall. In conclusion, the stock price reaction is linked to the choice of the stock exchange and the economic situation of the host country.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>foreign listing, emerging market, market reaction, stock prices, stock profitability, abnormal profitability.</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification</strong>: M13, M15, O32</p> <p><strong>Type of article:</strong> Empirical Research</p> Meryem HAKKOU Cheklekbire MALAININE Copyright (c) 2024 Meryem HAKKOU, Cheklekbire MALAININE 2024-02-11 2024-02-11 5 2 161 176 10.5281/zenodo.10647035 University teaching practices for the acquisition and development of students' transversal skills in e-learning mode <p>In the digital era, university education is constantly evolving due to the digitalization and innovation of teaching practices and modes in the service of the noble cause of building specific and transversal competencies of students. However, the learning process does not often target transversal competencies, conferring their diffuse and transferable specificity. In doing so, active pedagogy makes the learner an actor in his learning and calls for a mode of learning assisted by new technologies: university e-learning, which exploits the great potential offered by information and communication technologies (ICT) and contributes to many assets through collaborative activities. Our objective is to conduct a study on the development of transversal skills in university e-learning through a quantitative study. We hypothesize that distance learning positively impacts the development of transversal skills necessary for easier integration into the labor market. For this purpose, a questionnaire was distributed to students at the Faculty of Education in Rabat to verify the influence of teaching practices in distance education on the development of transversal competencies. The descriptive and correlational analysis results revealed that distance learning optimizes the development of transversal competencies, and a significant positive causal relationship exists between distance learning and the development of transversal competencies. Therefore, our work can be used by teachers to improve university teaching practices, thus promoting pedagogical innovation in the higher education system and consequently the educational system's performance.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>University e-learning, Distance learning, Educational Technologies, Pedagogical innovation, Transversal competencies.</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>I23</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> Safae AZAOUI Abdelaziz BOUMAHDI Copyright (c) 2024 Safae AZAOUI, Abdelaziz BOUMAHDI 2024-02-11 2024-02-11 5 2 177 191 10.5281/zenodo.10647109 Multidimensional value creation in the social and solidarity economy in Morocco <p>Faced with the new challenges of development in terms of social equity, preserving the environment and revitalising territories, the capitalist model has clearly shown its limits, due to the relentless pursuit of profits, the impoverishment of a large part of the population and the depletion of the natural capital that must be preserved and passed on to future generations to give them fulfilment and well-being.</p> <p>In this sense, the initiatives taken by social and solidarity-based economy organisations are in line with the objectives of sustainable territorial development and are primarily aimed at meeting a multitude of socio-economic needs that have been neglected by the State and by traditional businesses, which do not see the satisfaction of these needs as a major source of financial return to attract investment. The aim of this article is to answer the following research question: To what extent do social and solidarity economy organisations, and in particular cooperatives, contribute to the creation of multidimensional value likely to meet the new development challenges in Morocco?</p> <p>We therefore opted for a multiple case study of ten cooperatives spread across most of the provinces and prefectures of the Fès-Meknès region, focusing mainly on semi-directive interviews, observation and documentary study.</p> <p>After discussing the results of the study, it emerged that social and solidarity economy structures also create value, which is not just economic and financial, but rather multidimensional (economic, social, environmental, institutional, strategic, etc.). This multidimensional aspect of value creation by the SSE makes it possible to better satisfy needs neglected by the State and the market, to energise territories and thus to ensure the survival of SSE structures.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Social and solidarity economy; value creation; multidimensional value; development; territory.</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification</strong> : <em>A1</em></p> <p><strong>Paper type:</strong> Empirical research</p> Fouad LAHLIMI Copyright (c) 2024 Fouad LAHLIMI 2024-02-11 2024-02-11 5 2 192 210 10.5281/zenodo.10647172 Regional growth mechanisms in Morocco: evidence on convergence approach <p>Our study is structured around regional growth in Morroco, with the starting point of the observation of a persistence of development disparities, especially between regions. After a brief reminder of Advanced Regionalization which is a process that has highlighted the role of the region in achieving endogenous and balanced territorial development, we try to understand the mechanisms and factors by which this regional development generates the development of the country, and this through the study of the dynamics of economic development of Moroccan regions. To do this, we quantify the impact of these factors through the convergence approach which aims to understand the evolution of the distribution of regional development gaps using an approach to measuring regional inequalities according to the deficit index. This study made it possible to analyze and evaluate the reduction in regional disparities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>&nbsp;regional growth, regional disparities, regional development, Morocco, development mechanisms.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>: G41</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>: Analytic Research</p> Najat ATTAR BOULAICH Copyright (c) 2024 Najat ATTAR BOULAICH 2024-02-11 2024-02-11 5 2 211 226 10.5281/zenodo.10647567 Effect of institutional quality on the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in the Democratic Republic of Congo <p>The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of institutional quality on the attractiveness of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) over the period 1996-2020 (25 years). To examine this relationship, this paper uses Engel and Granger's (1987) two-stage algorithm, employing error-correction econometric analysis of a multiple regression. The results reveal that among the indicators of good governance (Kaufman et al., 1999), only the variables "government effectiveness", "political stability" and "voice and accountability" have a negative and significant influence on the attractiveness of FDI in the Congolese context. Thus, policy implications aimed at increasing the quality of institutions in the sense of decreasing institutional overheads, designing and implementing sound policies, promoting democracy, and reducing political instability and terrorism would contribute to the inflow of FDI volume to the DRC.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Institutional quality, Governance, Foreign Direct Investment.</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>F21, G28, O16, O38</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Clovis MIAMO WENDJI Augustin MUMBERE SIBAYIRWANDEKE Nelson KASEREKA KYUMA Dieu-merci KAMBALE KAHANDUKYA Copyright (c) 2024 Clovis MIAMO WENDJI, Augustin MUMBERE SIBAYIRWANDEKE, Nelson KASEREKA KYUMA, Dieu-merci KAMBALE KAHANDUKYA 2024-02-11 2024-02-11 5 2 227 243 10.5281/zenodo.10647291 Trust and organization's performance <p>The aim of this article is to examine the effects of trust on firm’s performance based on theoretical and empirical researches <em>of different countries</em>.</p> <p>Despite <em>numerous attempts to define trust, despite numerous attempts to define trust, researchers have yet to agree on a definition of the concept. This lack of consensus is largely due to the different contexts in which the concept is used in the various scientific disciplines.</em></p> <p>Since its emergence over the last 50 years, the concept of trust has aroused the interest of researchers in many disciplines, including psychology, sociology, economics, computer science, management and marketing, which explains the absence of a consensus definition of the concept.</p> <p>The <em>paper attempts</em> to <em>answer</em> the <em>following</em> research <em>question</em>: " how does trust influence firm's performance?" To carry out our work, We will address this question in four parts. In the first section we will present the different theoretical conceptions of trust, The second part will focus on analyzing the concept of performance by exploring its various multidimensional aspects , In the third part we will summarize the theoretical and empirical studies analyzing the effects of trust on performance, this research covers both the macro- and micro-economic levels, &nbsp;Finally, we will conclude our work with a theoretical model that illustrates the results of our literature review, This model can be used as a basis for formulating hypotheses that can be evaluated empirically in subsequent studies.</p> <p><em>Among the main conclusions of this paper are </em>the reduction of transaction costs, particularly in family firms, the development of emotional attachment to the firm, the encouragement of creativity and personal initiative.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>trust, performance, organisation</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>A12</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> Fatiha CHOUIEKH Fatima Zahra YOUSFI Copyright (c) 2024 Fatiha CHOUIEKH, Fatima Zahra YOUSFI 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 5 2 244 259 10.5281/zenodo.1065754 Digitization of Non-Recovery Risk Management in Non-Financial Companies: A Qualitative Study of Risk Managers' Perceptions in Morocco <p>Within an ever-changing economic landscape, organizations are exposed to a myriad of risks, compelling them to increasingly implement rigorous and sector-appropriate risk management. In this context, the risk of non-recovery of receivables within non-financial companies deserves particular attention due to its significant impact.</p> <p>This article, among the few studies addressing this specific topic, aims to shed light on the perceptions and attitudes of risk managers regarding the digitization of non-recovery risk management in non-financial enterprises. It is commonly observed that the risk of non-recovery is more frequently discussed in the context of financial companies, while non-financial enterprises also experience its challenges. The fundamental idea behind this study is to understand how risk managers perceive this risk and whether they believe that digitization impacts its management. The results reflect trends in the adoption of digitization, the perspectives of risk managers, and the observed impacts on non-recovery risk management. The discussion delves deep into these findings, highlighting challenges, successes, and opportunities. By exploring trends, perspectives, and impacts, this research contributes to a broader understanding of the role of digital tools in anticipating, assessing, and mitigating non-recovery risks. The challenges highlighted in the discussion emphasize the need for tailored strategies and further exploration of opportunities for improvement.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Risk management, non-recovery risk, digital tools, perceptions, risk managers.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>: G32</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>: Empirical Research</p> Chaimaa ACHIR Aziz DOUARI Copyright (c) 2024 Chaimaa ACHIR, Aziz DOUARI 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 5 2 260 274 10.5281/zenodo.10657625 Contribution of the Balanced Scorecard to the Management Control: Case of Public Institutions and Enterprises in Morocco <p>In order to align the country's socio-economic structures with environmental changes and to address the pressing needs of the citizens, the Moroccan public authorities have undertaken modernization reforms. These reforms aim for a more rationalized, effective, and efficient public management, introducing new management methods to create value while meeting the expectations of Moroccan citizens. In this context, it is imperative to strengthen management control within Public Establishments and Enterprises (EEP) to be able to implement a global performance approach using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This tool is designed to provide a holistic and balanced view of an organization's performance by integrating both financial and non-financial measures. Consequently, this article aims to explore the usefulness of the Balanced Scorecard to make management control a strategic management tool beyond its purely financial aspect aimed at improving overall performance.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Public establishments and enterprises - Management control - Strategic steering - Balanced Scorecard (BSC) – Performance.</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification&nbsp;: H 11</strong></p> <p><strong>Paper type&nbsp;: </strong>Theoretical Research<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> Hajar AHADI Abdelhay BENABDELHADI Copyright (c) 2024 Hajar AHADI, Abdelhay BENABDELHADI 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 5 2 275 290 10.5281/zenodo.10657704 The Brand: Applicability to Political Party and Its Impact on Electoral Success <p>Due to its global nature and its ability to create value, the concept of branding has been applied to various entities. According to Keller (2008), brand management can be applied to a wide range of diverse areas, including tangible goods, services, places, ideas, as well as individuals (politicians) and organizations of all kinds such as political parties. Scammell (2007) argues that political branding is a burgeoning trend in political marketing. The use of branding technology in campaigns is becoming increasingly prevalent. The concept of political branding wasn't embraced overnight. Its roots trace back to studies of motivation in political science and the examination of reputation among voters in political marketing. The practice of party branding has recently expanded to developing countries. In line with Ahmed et al. (2011), according to a study conducted in Pakistan, voters have become highly discerning and demanding, prompting parties to develop strategies that professionally cater to voter needs. Perhaps this is the primary reason research on applying branding to political parties is proliferating both in developed and developing countries.</p> <p>In this article, we will adopt a conceptual typology for our literature review, aiming to highlight the impact of branding on electoral success by clarifying concepts related to political branding and its various typologies. The novelty of our article lies in applying marketing principles and relationships to political domains, specifically the concept of branding, which is recognized as a decision-making tool in the commercial context. This reinforces the idea that adopting the branding concept from political marketing can serve as a decision guide for voters during elections and subsequently become a significant factor influencing the voting decision-making process.</p> <p>Haut du formulaire</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Political branding, political marketing, electoral success, voting decision-making process</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification:</strong> M0, M3&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper type:</strong> Theoretical Research&nbsp;</p> Ikram AOUAD Abdelkarim JABRI Copyright (c) 2024 Ikram AOUAD, Abdelkarim JABRI 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 5 2 291 303 10.5281/zenodo.10657973 Models and dynamics of underpricing in initial public offerings: a multifactorial analysis <p>This article examines the phenomenon of underpricing in initial public offerings (IPOs), a subject that captures the attention of both practitioners and researchers in the financial field. The research focuses on the central question of why, despite theoretical advances and market practices, IPOs are systematically underpriced at their launch. The goal is to unveil the underlying mechanisms of this underpricing and to analyze its impact on post-IPO performance, highlighting the strategies of companies and the market dynamics at play. Relying on a literature review that adopts systematic and conceptual approaches, this study synthesizes various existing theories while identifying areas of divergence and convergence among them. This allows for a comprehensive overview of the theoretical perspectives on the subject. The main theoretical findings highlight the importance of information asymmetry, signaling theory, and risk management strategies in understanding the underpricing of IPOs. The article also discusses divergences, particularly regarding the importance of behavioral factors versus structural factors, and convergences, such as the central role of information asymmetry. Our analysis sheds light on a gap in the literature regarding the long-term effects of underpricing on company performance post-IPO, as well as the limitations of existing theoretical models to integrate contemporary variables such as the impact of social media and changes in global regulation. This article aims to provide a thorough and generalizable analysis of the IPO underpricing phenomenon, thereby contributing to the understanding and application of financial theories in the context of both emerging and established markets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> IPO, underpricing, post-IPO performance, information asymmetry, signaling theory.</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification:</strong> G11, G12, G15</p> <p><strong>Paper type:</strong> Theoretical research&nbsp;</p> Nabila SABIR Sidi Mohamed RIGAR Copyright (c) 2024 Nabila SABIR, Sidi Mohamed RIGAR 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 5 2 302 316 10.5281/zenodo.10658009 Challenges and Perspectives: Understanding the Labyrinth of Unemployment in Mali (1991-2022) <p style="font-weight: 400;">In Mali, facing a major socio-economic challenge characterized by an official unemployment rate of 8% and a young population (67% under 24 years, UNICEF, 2021), this study analyzes the causes and consequences of unemployment between 1991 and 2022. Despite appreciable economic growth before 2020 (average annual growth of 5%, World Bank, 2020), the country struggles to generate significant employment, especially for the youth and women. The aim of this paper is to deeply examine the impacts of demographic, educational, and economic variables on the job market. Adopting an econometric methodology, the study utilizes analyses of stationarity, cointegration, and an error correction model (ECM). The results indicate that growth alone is insufficient to significantly reduce unemployment, highlighting the need for education aligned with market needs and political stability to stimulate employment. In conclusion, the study recommends targeted reforms to improve employability and promote inclusive economic growth, adapted to the specific realities of Mali.</p> Etienne Fakaba SISSOKO Khalid DEMBELE Abdoulaye MAIGA Tahirou TANGARA Copyright (c) 2024 Etienne Fakaba SISSOKO, Khalid DEMBELE, Abdoulaye MAIGA, Tahirou TANGARA 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 5 2 317 335 10.5281/zenodo.10658398 Exploring the Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Job Creation: A Case Study of Program 3 in the Third Phase of the National Initiative of Human Development (NIHD) in the Casa-Settat Region <p>The article examines the contribution of social entrepreneurship to job creation, focusing on Program 3 of the third phase of the National Initiative for Human Development (NIHD) in the Casa-Settat region of Morocco. The primary objective is to highlight the specific impact of this program on job generation and to explore the crucial role of social entrepreneurship in this process.</p> <p>The paper begins with a national socio-economic context, emphasizing the challenges of unemployment. It then delves into a review of the literature on social entrepreneurship. Special attention is given to the NIHD, elucidating its context of emergence, assessing the outcomes of previous phases, and focusing on the specifics of Program 3 in the third phase.</p> <p>The obtained results significantly demonstrate the positive impact of Program 3 on job creation in the Casa-Settat region. Finally, the article provides recommendations to further strengthen these efforts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords&nbsp;:</strong> Social entrepreneurship, employment, NIHD.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>&nbsp;: J08</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>&nbsp;: Theoretical Research</p> Youssef MOFLIH El houssine MOUSTAID Copyright (c) 2024 Youssef MOFLIH, El houssine MOUSTAID 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 5 2 336 356 10.5281/zenodo.10688095 Redefining Sustainable Development from the Perspective of Happiness <p>The quest for happiness is, without a doubt, an ambition shared globally. In other words, it constitutes the major concern of ordinary people across the four corners of the globe. However, it is important to note that its definition has evolved over time according to very diverse criteria. Today, there is agreement that lasting happiness extends beyond material satisfaction, fitting into the broader debate of sustainable development which stipulates a balance between economic growth, social cohesion, and environmental preservation for current and future well-being. Research emphasizes the importance of these three pillars in achieving lasting happiness, with particular attention to environmental impacts that are able to compromise quality of life. Academic debates show that the well-being of a society depends on several factors that vary between income, social relationships, and environmental health, and that sustainable development offers a more inclusive framework than the simple quest for wealth. From this perspective, indicators such as the Happy Planet Index reveal that well-being and social justice must be weighed as much as economic growth in the pursuit of happiness. Moreover, the literature argues for a holistic vision of happiness, implying deep reflection on our lifestyles and the need for collective action to establish truly sustainable and balanced development. It is in this vein that this article seeks to shed lighter on a possible correlation between happiness, sustainable development and lasting happiness.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>development, social sustainability, environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, sustainable happiness.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>: D 01, Q 01, I 31, M 31</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>: Theoretical Research</p> Hanan KOURAD Bachir LAKHDAR Copyright (c) 2024 Hanan KOURAD, Bachir LAKHDAR 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 5 2 357 373 10.5281/zenodo.10688189 Does institutional quality promote financial development in the Democratic Republic of Congo? Essay of analysis based on the ARDL approach <p>As institutions are in theory a sturdy determinant of financial sector emergence, this paper examines the relationship between these two variables in the Congolese context over the period 1996-2021 (26 years). It is based on the ARDL approach for testing the short- and long-term dynamic of the effects of institutional quality on the financial development. The results brought out reveal that a climate of peace and political stability is suitable for the extending of the financial system scope by facilitating the access to credit. However, the regulation and its non-extension are becoming restrictive and are slowing down the effects expected in the short term. These effects of the regulation quality become favorable in the long term because of the abridgment of informational, enablement and adaptation challenges. It follows, moreover, that the inefficiency of Congolese governments in designing and healthily carrying on policies and growing strategies compromises the widespread distribution of credit to the private sector in both the short and the long term. Although it has slightly contributed to the increase of the short-term credit volume, the cultivation of corruption - which has become institutionalized - remains harmful to the harmonious financing of the economy in the long term. To do this, the DRC should henceforth invest more in cleaning up its institutional landscape for the building and the development of a tough and inclusive financial sector.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>Institutions, Institutional quality, Financial development, ARDL</em></p> <p><strong><em>JEL Classification: </em></strong><em>E02, E51, G21, K00</em></p> <p><strong><em>Paper type: </em></strong><em>Empirical research</em></p> Dieu-merci KAMBALE KAHANDUKYA Providence MBALOLYAKO ENIC Copyright (c) 2024 Dieu-merci KAMBALE KAHANDUKYA, Providence MBALOLYAKO ENIC 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 5 2 374 391 10.5281/zenodo.10688405 Audit Report Lag and Cost of Equity Capital: How do investors deem audit report lag? Evidence from France <p>This research investigates the impact of external audit report lag on the cost of equity capital and how investors perceive audit report lag.</p> <p>We posit that a longer audit report lag is associated with a higher cost of equity capital because a lengthier audit report arouses investors' mistrust concerning accounting practices and the credibility of reported financial information, which increases the cost of equity capital in return.</p> <p>For the contributions of the study and to the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to study the impact of audit report lag on the cost of equity capital in the French context.</p> <p>Using a sample of the 881 listed French companies and 34,950 firm-year observations from 2008 to 2021, we find that firms with higher audit report lag have a higher cost of equity capital. Investors link extended audit delay to a lack of transparency, issues in financial reporting, and higher business risks (such as dubious accounting practices and adverse or disclaimer opinions) due to information asymmetry.</p> <p>Our findings have implications for companies, investors, auditors, and regulators as they highlight that firms' cost of equity capital is positively associated with the audit report lag. Our findings contribute to the ongoing debates concerning the impact of audit report lag by emphasizing its impact on financing costs.</p> <p>As for limitations, we mention that there is no flawless approach to estimating the cost of equity capital. Even if the adopted measurements of the cost of equity capital in this research have wide empirical support, the measurements can be improved.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Audit report lag, cost of equity capital, quality of information, improved decision-making, information asymmetry</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>&nbsp;: M40</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>&nbsp;: Empirical Research</p> Ilyass CHAKER Copyright (c) 2024 Ilyass CHAKER 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 5 2 392 407 10.5281/zenodo.10688640 Pump prices in Morocco and oil price: an analysis of transmission <p>The observation of pump price levels in Morocco and the price of oil raises many questions among the public and economists, who note a certain discrepancy between the level of the price of crude oil and that of pump prices. This phenomenon, known in the literature as "Rockets and feathers", expresses a certain asymmetry between these two prices, whereby prices at the pump react quickly to increases in the price of crude oil, but only slowly to decreases in the latter. Thus, this paper aims to test this asymmetry hypothesis for the case of Morocco using NARDL (nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags) model throughout 49 fortnights (from 16/01/2016 to 16/12/2017). The results of this study did not confirm the presence of a certain asymmetry in either the short or long term between the price of refined gasoil at import and retail price.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Transmission; Asymmetry; NARDL; pump prices; Morocco</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL&nbsp;: </strong> L11 ; L51</p> <p><strong>Paper type : </strong>Empirical research</p> Mohamed DRAR Mbarek AOUFIR Copyright (c) 2024 Mohamed DRAR, Mbarek AOUFIR 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 5 2 408 423 10.5281/zenodo.10688741 Digital transformation of Moroccan cooperatives: A case study of the Oriental region <p>Since the 2000s, the widespread adoption of high technology has significantly altered management procedures and professional relations within organizations. The concept of digitalization is becoming increasingly important in the strategies of organizations in various countries such as Morocco. Indeed, they see digital as a means of achieving the goals of the new development model, "Digital Morocco". The present paper aims to address and analyze the challenges and opportunities brought about by digital transformation, in particular, for cooperatives at the national level. Methodologically, we have adopted an exploratory qualitative approach with Moroccan cooperatives. It is found that the major challenges facing Moroccan cooperatives are human capital, financing, and methodological support. Digital transformation can sometimes be a source of anxiety for many cooperative leaders. They must experiment with new ways of working that combine experience sharing, teamwork, strong collaboration with customers, creativity, and innovation. All of these issues are solvable with the help of digital technology if we know how to capitalize on opportunities. Hence, through this work, we would like to focus on the case of cooperatives and answer the following question: what impact does digitization have on management practices from the point of view of cooperative managers or leaders?</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Digitalization; Moroccan cooperatives; Issues and opportunities..</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>&nbsp;: G41</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>: Empirical Research</p> Nadia CHADLI Omar BELAL Copyright (c) 2024 Nadia CHADLI, Omar BELAL 2024-02-25 2024-02-25 5 2 424 435 10.5281/zenodo.10702112 The unemployment of graduates in Morocco: the mismatch between education and employment <p>The article focuses on a theoretical analysis of the relationship between employment and education, specifically examining graduate unemployment in Morocco. It explores various theoretical approaches to unemployment, delves into detailed statistics related to this category, and highlights the quantitative mismatch between the supply of trained workforce and the demand in the job market. Emphasizing a qualitative mismatch as well, characterized by a shortage of skills on the part of businesses and overqualification on the part of graduates, the article provides an analysis based on existing data, not formulated by the author. In conclusion, it offers an overview of strategies and interventions to address graduate unemployment in Morocco, significantly contributing to the understanding and resolution of this crucial issue for the socio-economic development of the country</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords&nbsp;:</strong> Mismatch between education and employment, Unemployement,Young graduates.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>&nbsp;: J08</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>&nbsp;: Theoretical Research</p> Youssef MOFLIH EL Houssine MOUSTAID Copyright (c) 2024 Youssef MOFLIH, EL Houssine MOUSTAID 2024-02-25 2024-02-25 5 2 436 454 10.5281/zenodo.10702158 Branding to attract investment from the Moroccan diaspora <p>Globalisation has increased competition between territories to attract foreign direct investment because of its impact on economic development. Morocco aware of this challenge, has a diaspora of more than five million of which a large part wishes to invest in its country of origin. Our problematic focuses on how the brand contributes to attracting investments of the moroccan diaspora. Our research objective is the realization of a conceptual model inspired by our literature review to stimulate the attraction of moroccan investors living abroad. The state of the art has shown that in recent years, territorial marketing and branding strategies have gained importance due to the fierce competition between territories and the phenomenon of international mobility. Previous work has been characterized by a variety of study objects and different dimensions in the choice of the territory studied, due to the multidimensional nature of the issue of territorial attractiveness. In general, the theoretical framework of this field of study has been described by several researchers as insufficient. In this article we highlighted the concept of brand image by making the link with the attraction of investors from the moroccan diaspora in the light of the theory of social representations and the theory of planned behavior converging in the notion of perception. This article does not claim to be exhaustive but it offers new research perspectives in this field of study.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Moroccan investors living abroad, diaspora, attractiveness, brand image, representation.</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL</strong>: M31</p> <p><strong>Paper type</strong>: Theoretical Research</p> Yassine MATOUG Ilham BOURIQUI Copyright (c) 2024 Yassine MATOUG, Ilham BOURIQUI 2024-02-25 2024-02-25 5 2 455 475 10.5281/zenodo.10702210 The Corporate Social Responsibility among logistics service providers: an approach based on grounded theory in the Moroccan context <p>A prominent characteristic observed in Moroccan logistics service providers (LSPs) is their heightened focus on the principle of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Numerous logistics service providers (LSPs) employ CSR initiatives to lend support to specific stakeholders and capitalize on their societal roles. Despite this trend, there exists a dearth of research addressing CSR within the Moroccan logistics sector, leaving a gap in terms of guiding policies and practices associated with CSR initiatives. Consequently, the primary aim of this investigation was to scrutinize CSR in the Moroccan logistics sector with the intent of facilitating the progress and assessment of CSR initiatives among LSPs.</p> <p>This qualitative research, centered around development, employed a combination of targeted and snowball sampling methods to select participants. A total of 28 individuals, including executives, industry experts, and board members, were engaged. Semi-structured one-on-one interviews served as the primary means for data generation. Analytical procedures adhered to the principles of grounded theory and involved open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. Particular emphasis was given to the five main categories of causation, encompassing cultural, social, economic, political, and institutional dimensions.</p> <p>The findings revealed that CSR activities possess the potential to influence the overall performance of providers across various concepts and categories. These include fostering public trust, promoting ethical and ecological dimensions, uncovering and creating new markets, and attracting supporters. Situated in Morocco, this analysis proposes an alternative perspective on CSR, distinct from prevailing Western approaches.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Corporate social responsibility (CSR); Moroccan logistics sector; CSR initiatives; Grounded theory</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification : </strong><em>M14,Q56</em></p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Empirical research</p> Malak KASMI Anouar AMMI Samiha BAKKALI Copyright (c) 2024 Malak KASMI, Anouar AMMI, Samiha BAKKALI 2024-02-25 2024-02-25 5 2 476 497 10.5281/zenodo.10702265 Factors influencing cash management in Togolese decentralized financial systems <p>Microfinance institutions, known as Decentralised Financial Systems (DFS) or microfinance institutions (MFI), must contribute to the social development of their customers in addition to their economic purpose. This approach places DFSs in a unique dialectic within the financial system (Bedecarrats et al., 2013). This raises the question of the dual performance of these actors: economic and social. To achieve this dual performance, SFDs need to manage their cash flow optimally. In this article, we analyse the factors influencing the cash management of SFDs in Togo. Based on a sample of 35 Togolese SFDs and using the influence factor analysis method, our results show that in the Togolese context, the financial intermediation margin rate, liquidity ratio, cost of resources and repayment rate are the factors influencing cash flow management.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cash Management, Decentralized Financial System</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL&nbsp;: </strong>M19-G21</p> <p><strong>Type d’article&nbsp;: </strong>Empirical Research</p> Kokouvi Léon AMETOWOYONA Curwitch Pham BODJONA Tsotso KOUEVI Copyright (c) 2024 Kokouvi Léon AMETOWOYONA, Curwitch Pham BODJONA, Tsotso KOUEVI 2024-02-25 2024-02-25 5 2 498 515 10.5281/zenodo.10702320 Media Management in Mali: Impact of Journalists' Economic Precarity on the Quality of Information in Print Media <p>Exploring the impact of economic precarity on the quality of journalism in Mali, this pioneering study aims to decipher the repercussions of economic conditions on journalistic practices and information dissemination in a specific African context. By adopting a mixed methodology, combining qualitative analyses through semi-structured interviews with 384 media industry stakeholders, and quantitative analysis via linear regressions, this research provides a comprehensive perspective on the interaction between economic precarity and journalism. The results reveal a notable correlation between economic precarity and the decline in information quality, affecting media objectivity and varying according to journalistic genres, in line with theories of professional precarity and media gatekeeping. However, the specificity of the Malian context and the focus on the print press limit the scope of the conclusions. The practical implications of this study highlight the urgency of investing in journalist training and adopting more equitable media regulation. Making a significant contribution to understanding the challenges of media in developing countries, this article offers valuable insights into the interaction between economy and journalism, enriching the debate on information quality in precarious environments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Economic Precarity; Journalism; Mali; Media; Print Press</p> <p><strong>Classification JEL : </strong>L82&nbsp;; J44&nbsp;; O17&nbsp;; M12&nbsp;; Z13</p> <p><strong>Type d’article&nbsp;: </strong>Empirical Research</p> Etienne Fakaba Sissoko Tahirou TANGARA Alassane Lamine TRAORE Copyright (c) 2024 Etienne Fakaba Sissoko, Tahirou TANGARA, Alassane Lamine TRAORE 2024-02-25 2024-02-25 5 2 516 534 10.5281/zenodo.10702390 Evolution of public management paradigms: From traditional administration to governance <p>This article explores major paradigms in the evolution of public management, including traditional administrative management, New Public Management (NPM), and the post-NPM paradigm. At the beginning of the 20th century, public administration emerged as a distinct discipline for the first time, influenced by the ideas of classical organizational theories. This paradigm became fully ingrained in Weberian bureaucracy and its vertical-hierarchical mode. However, since the 1960s, the limitations of this model have emerged as states faced increasing challenges and heightened public expectations.</p> <p>In response to these challenges, the NPM was introduced in the 1980s, advocating for the use of private management methods in the public sector, emphasizing efficiency, cost reduction, and decentralization. However, this paradigm was criticized for fragmenting the public sector, neglecting the specific attributes of public organizations, and yielding mixed performance results.</p> <p>These criticisms led to post-NPM movements, seeking to integrate best management practices while considering the specificities of the public sector. Among these, the governance paradigm is highlighted. Governance, in this sense, emphasizes collaboration, transparency, and citizen participation, aiming to strike a balance between efficiency and accountability.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Public Management, Public Administration, New Public Management (NPM), Governance, post-NPM paradigm.</p> <p><strong>JEL Classification: </strong>H83</p> <p><strong>Paper type: </strong>Theoretical Research</p> <p><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></p> Sara DERBAL Mohamed TAHROUCH Copyright (c) 2024 Sara DERBAL, Mohamed TAHROUCH 2024-02-25 2024-02-25 5 2 535 551 10.5281/zenodo.10702991